In this paper, we consider the problem of energy balanced data propagation in wireless sensor networks and we generalise previous works by allowing realistic energy assignment. A new modelisation of the process of energy consumption as a random walk along with a new analysis are proposed. Two new algorithms are presented and analysed. The first one is easy to implement and fast to execute. However, it needs a priori assumptions on the process generating data to be propagated. The second algorithm overcomes this need by inferring information from the observation of the process. Furthermore, this algorithm is based on stochastic estimation methods and is adaptive to environmental changes. This represents an important contribution for propagating energy balanced data in wireless sensor netwoks due to their highly dynamic nature.