Tools and Technologies for eParticipation and eVoting, Trust and Security: provisions and instruments, eDemocracy and eParticipation Challenges, Risk Assessment, CryptographicProtocol, Security Architecture
Abstract: We present an implementation ofan EC cryptographic library
targeting three main objectives: portability, modularity, and ease
ofu se. Our goal is to provide a fully-equipped library ofp ortable source
code with clearly separated modules that allows for easy development of
EC cryptographicprotocols, and which can be readily tailored to suit
different requirements and user needs. We discuss several implementation
issues regarding the development oft he library and report on some
Abstract: eVoting is a challenging approach for increasing eParticipation. However, lack of citizensĒ trust seems to be a main obstacle that hinders its successful realization. In this paper we propose a trust-centered engineering approach for building eVoting systems that people can trust, based on transparent design and implementation phases. The approach is based on three components: the decomposition of eVoting systems into “layers of trust” for reducing the complexity of managing trust issues in smaller manageable layers, the application of a risk analysis methodology able to identify and document security critical aspects of the eVoting system, and a cryptographically secure eVoting protocol. Our approach is pragmatic rather than theoretical in the sense that it sidesteps the controversy that besets the nature of trust in information systems and starts with a working definition of trust as peopleĒs positive attitude towards a system that performs its operations transparently.
Abstract: We describe the design and implementation of secure and robust protocol and system for a national electronic lottery. Electronic lotteries at a national level are a viable cost effective alternative to mechanical ones when there is a business need to support many types of rdquogames of chancerdquo and to allow increased drawing frequency. Electronic lotteries are, in fact, extremely high risk financial application: If one discovers a way to predict or otherwise claim the winning numbers (even once) the result is huge financial damages. Moreover, the e-lottery process is complex, which increases the possibility of fraud or costly accidental failures. In addition, a national lottery must adhere to auditability and (regulatory) fairness requirements regarding its drawings. Our mechanism, which we believe is the first one of its kind to be described in the literature, builds upon a number of cryptographic primitives that ensure the unpredictability of the winning numbers, the prevention of their premature leakages and prevention of fraud. We also provide measures for auditability, fairness, and trustworthiness of the process. Besides cryptography, we incorporate security mechanisms that eliminate various risks along the entire process. Our system which was commissioned by a national organization, was implemented in the field and has been operational and active for a while, now.
Abstract: In this book chapter we will consider key establishment protocols for wireless sensor networks.
Several protocols have been proposed in the literature for the establishment of a shared group key for wired networks.
The choice of a protocol depends whether the key is established by one of the participants (and then transported to the other(s)) or agreed among the participants, and on the underlying cryptographic mechanisms (symmetric or asymmetric). Clearly, the design of key establishment protocols for sensor networks must deal with different problems and challenges that do not exist in wired networks. To name a few, wireless links are particularly vulnerable to eavesdropping, and that sensor devices can be captured (and the secrets they contain can be compromised); in many upcoming wireless sensor networks, nodes cannot rely on the presence of an online trusted server (whereas most standardized authentication and key establishment protocols do rely on such a server).
In particular, we will consider five distributed group key establishment protocols. Each of these protocols applies a different algorithmic technique that makes it more suitable for (i) static sensor networks, (ii) sensor networks where nodes enter sleep mode (i.e. dynamic, with low rate of updates on the connectivity graph) and (iii) fully dynamic networks where nodes may even be mobile. On the other hand, the common factor for all five protocols is that they can be applied in dynamic groups (where members can be excluded or added) and provide forward and backward secrecy. All these protocols are based on the Diffie-Hellman key exchange algorithm and constitute natural extensions of it in the multiparty case.
Abstract: Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) is one of the
most promising alternatives to conventional public
key cryptography, such as RSA and ElGamal, since
it employs keys of smaller sizes for the same level
of cryptographic strength. Smaller key sizes imply
smaller hardware units for performing the arithmetic
operations required by cryptographicprotocols and,
thus, ECC is an ideal candidate for implementation
in embedded systems where the major computational
resources (speed and storage) are limited.
In this paper we present a port, written in ANSI C
for maximum portability, of an open source ECCbased
cryptographic library (ECC-LIB) to ATMELĒs
AT76C520 802.11 WLAN Access Point. One of the
major features of this port, not found in similar ports,
is that it supports Complex Multiplication (CM) for
the construction of Elliptic Curves with good security
properties. We present some experimental results that
demonstrate that the port is efficient and can lead to generic embedded systems with robust ECC-based
cryptographicprotocols using cryptographically strong
ECCs generated with CM. As an application of the
ported library, an EC Diffie-Hellman key exchange
protocol is developed as an alternative of the 4-way
key handshake protocol of the 802.11 protocol.
Abstract: Embedded computing devices dominate our everyday activities, from cell phones to wireless sensors that collect and process data for various applications. Although desktop and high-end server security seems to be under control by the use of current security technology, securing the low-end embedded computing systems is a difficult long-term problem. This is mainly due to the fact that the embedded systems are constrained by their operational environment and the limited resources they are equipped with. Recent research activities focus on the deployment of lightweight cryptographic algorithms and security protocols that are well suited to the limited resources of low-end embedded systems. Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) offers an interesting alternative to the classical public key cryptography for embedded systems (e.g., RSA and ElGamal), since it uses smaller key sizes for achieving the same security level, thus making ECC an attractive and efficient alternative for deployment in embedded systems. In this chapter, the processing requirements and architectures for secure network access, communication functions, storage, and high availability of embedded devices are discussed. In addition, ECC-based state-of-the-art lightweight cryptographic primitives for the deployment of security protocols in embedded systems that fulfill the requirements are presented.