Abstract: This paper presents an overview of Quality of Service (QoS) differentiation mechanisms proposed for Optical Burst Switching (OBS) networks. OBS has been proposed to couple the benefits of both circuit and packet switching for the “on demand” use of capacity in the future optical Internet. In such a case, QoS support imposes some important challenges before this technology is deployed. This paper takes a broader view on QoS, including QoS differentiation not only at the burst but also at the transport levels for OBS networks. A classification of existing QoS differentiation mechanisms for OBS is given and their efficiency and complexity are comparatively discussed. We provide numerical examples on how QoS differentiation with respect to burst loss rate and transport layer throughput can be achieved in OBS networks.
Abstract: In this paper, we discuss key findings, technological challenges and socioeconomic opportunities in Smart City era. Most of the conclusions were gathered during SmartSantander project, an EU project that is developing a city-scale testbed for IoT and FutureInternet experimentation, providing an integrated framework for implementing Smart City services.
Abstract: We discuss key findings and technological challenges related to SmartSantander, an EU project that is developing a city-scale experimental facility for Internet of Things and FutureInternet experimentation. The main goal of the project is to design and construct a city scale lab for experimentation and provide an integrated framework for implementing Smart City services.
Abstract: A number of infrastructures are being deployed for FutureInternet experimentation purposes, providing access to large-scale IoT resources to researchers and industry. SmartSantander is among the largest ones, deployed at the city center of Santander. We discuss SmartSantanderĒs augmentation using smartphones provided by volunteers, in order to increase sensing resources and ubiquity. Our system allows developers to write code for Android and automatically deploy their experiments to Android devices, alongside the SmartSantander platform. Initial results produced by experiments with a small number of volunteers show that the system provides meaningful extensions to the existing platform.
Abstract: A number of FutureInternet testbeds are being deployed around the world for research experimentation and development. SmartSantander
is an infrastructure of massive scale deployed inside a city centre. We argue that utilising the concept of participatory sensing can augment the functionality and potential use-cases of such a system and be beneficiary in a number of scenarios. We discuss
the concept of extending SmartSantander with participatory sensing through the use of volunteersĒ smartphones. We report on our design and implementation, which allows for developers to write
their code for Android devices and then deploy and execute on the devices automatically through our system. We have tested our implementation in a number of scenarios in two cities with the help
of volunteers with promising results; the data collected enhance the ones by fixed infrastructure both quantitatively and qualitatively across the cities, while also engaging citizens more directly.
Abstract: In this work, we explore context-aware application scenarios that become possible utilizing semantically-rich information derived from real-world mobility and presence traces. Traces produced by people carrying personal mobile devices, capturing social and contextual interactions, serve as enables for FutureInternet applications. We discuss the fundamental concepts, technical issues and related research challenges. We propose a reference architecture for setting up a system that collects such traces in a Smart City environment. We present the algorithms used to process the traces and infer interactions and interests for the observed populations. We conduct two 3-day trial deployments: one in an office environment and the other in the context of a Smart Conference application. We discuss our findings regarding the system's capability to track interactions and the overall efficacy of the application.
Abstract: Recent activity in the field of Internet-of-Things experimentation has focused on the federation of discrete testbeds, thus placing less effort in the integration of other related technologies, such as smartphones; also, while it is gradually moving to more application-oriented paths, such as urban settings, it has not dealt in large with applications having social networking features. We argue here that current IoT infrastructure, testbeds and related software technologies should be used in such a context, capturing real-world human mobility and social networking interactions, for use in evaluating and fine-tuning realistic mobility models and designing human-centric applications. We discuss a system for producing traces for a new generation of human-centric applications, utilizing technologies such as Bluetooth and focusing on human interactions. We describe the architecture for this system and the respective implementation details presenting two distinct deployments; one in an office environment and another in an exhibition/conference event (FET'11, The European Future Technologies Conference and Exhibition) with 103 active participants combined, thus covering two popular scenarios for human centric applications. Our system provides online, almost real-time, feedback and statistics and its implementation allows for rapid and robust deployment, utilizing mainstream technologies and components.