Abstract: In this work we extend the population protocol model of Angluin et al., in
order to model more powerful networks of very small resource limited
artefacts (agents) that is possible to follow some unpredictable passive
movement. These agents communicate in pairs according to the commands of
an adversary scheduler. A directed (or undirected) communication graph
encodes the following information: each edge (u,\~{o}) denotes that during the
computation it is possible for an interaction between u and \~{o} to happen in
which u is the initiator and \~{o} the responder. The new characteristic of
the proposed mediated population protocol model is the existance of a
passive communication provider that we call mediator. The mediator is a
simple database with communication capabilities. Its main purpose is to
maintain the permissible interactions in communication classes, whose
number is constant and independent of the population size. For this reason
we assume that each agent has a unique identifier for whose existence the
agent itself is not informed and thus cannot store it in its working
memory. When two agents are about to interact they send their ids to the
mediator. The mediator searches for that ordered pair in its database and
if it exists in some communication class it sends back to the agents the
state corresponding to that class. If this interaction is not permitted to
the agents, or, in other words, if this specific pair does not exist in
the database, the agents are informed to abord the interaction. Note that
in this manner for the first time we obtain some control on the safety of
the network and moreover the mediator provides us at any time with the
network topology. Equivalently, we can model the mediator by communication
links that are capable of keeping states from a edge state set of constant
cardinality. This alternative way of thinking of the new model has many
advantages concerning the formal modeling and the design of protocols,
since it enables us to abstract away the implementation details of the
mediator. Moreover, we extend further the new model by allowing the edges
to keep readable only costs, whose values also belong to a constant size
set. We then allow the protocol rules for pairwise interactions to modify
the corresponding edge state by also taking into account the costs. Thus,
our protocol descriptions are still independent of the population size and
do not use agent ids, i.e. they preserve scalability, uniformity and
anonymity. The proposed Mediated Population Protocols (MPP) can stably
compute graph properties of the communication graph. We show this for the
properties of maximal matchings (in undirected communication graphs), also
for finding the transitive closure of directed graphs and for finding all
edges of small cost. We demonstrate that our mediated protocols are
stronger than the classical population protocols. First of all we notice
an obvious fact: the classical model is a special case of the new model,
that is, the new model can compute at least the same things with the
classical one. We then present a mediated protocol that stably computes
the product of two nonnegative integers in the case where G is complete
directed and connected. Such kind of predicates are not semilinear and it
has been proven that classical population protocols in complete graphs can
compute precisely the semilinear predicates, thus in this manner we show
that there is at least one predicate that our model computes and which the
classical model cannot compute. To show this fact, we state and prove a
general Theorem about the composition of two mediated population
protocols, where the first one has stabilizing inputs. We also show that
all predicates stably computable in our model are (non-uniformly) in the
class NSPACE(m), where m is the number of edges of the communication
graph. Finally, we define Randomized MPP and show that, any Peano
predicate accepted by a Randomized MPP, can be verified in deterministic
polynomial time.