Abstract: Wireless sensor networks are comprised of a vast number of
ultra-small autonomous computing, communication and sensing devices,
with restricted energy and computing capabilities, that co-operate
to accomplish a large sensing task. Such networks can be very useful
in practice, e.g.~in the local monitoring of ambient conditions and
reporting them to a control center. In this paper we propose a
distributed group key establishment protocol that uses mobile agents
(software) and is particularly suitable for energy constrained,
dynamically evolving ad-hoc networks. Our approach totally avoids
the construction and the maintenance of a distributed structure that
reflects the topology of the network. Moreover, it trades-off
complex message exchanges by performing some amount of additional
local computations in order to be applicable at dense and dynamic
sensor networks. The extra computations are simple for the devices
to implement and are evenly distributed across the participants of
the network leading to good energy balance. We evaluate the
performance of our protocol in a simulated environment and compare
our results with existing group key establishment protocols. The
security of the protocol is based on the Diffie-Hellman problem and
we used in our experiments its elliptic curve analog. Our findings
basically indicate the feasibility of implementing our protocol in
real sensor network devices and highlight the advantages and
disadvantages of each approach given the available technology and
the corresponding efficiency (energy, time) criteria.

Abstract: As a result of recent significant technological advances, a new computing and communication environment, Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET), is about to enter the mainstream. A multitude of critical aspects, including mobility, severe limitations and limited reliability, create a new set of crucial issues and trade-offs that must be carefully taken into account in the design of robust and efficient algorithms for these environments. The communication among mobile hosts is one among the many issues that need to be resolved efficiently before MANET becomes a commodity.
In this paper, we propose to discuss the communication problem in MANET as well as present some characteristic techniques for the design, the analysis and the performance evaluation of distributed communication protocols for mobile ad hoc networks. More specifically, we propose to review two different design techniques. While the first type of protocols tries to create and maintain routing paths among the hosts, the second set of protocols uses a randomly moving subset of the hosts that acts as an intermediate pool for receiving and delivering messages. We discuss the main design choices for each approach, along with performance analysis of selected protocols.

Abstract: We investigate basic communication protocols in ad-hoc mobile networks. We follow the semi-compulsory approach according to which a small part of the mobile users, the support , that moves in a predetermined way is used as an intermediate pool for receiving and delivering messages. Under this approach, we present a new semi-compulsory protocol called the runners in which the members of perform concurrent and continuous random walks and exchange any information given to them by senders when they meet. We also conduct a comparative experimental study of the runners protocol with another existing semi-compulsory protocol, called the snake, in which the members of move in a coordinated way and always remain pairwise adjacent. The experimental evaluation has been carried out in a new generic framework that we developed to implement protocols for mobilecomputing. Our experiments showed that for both protocols only a small support is required for efficient communication, and that the runners protocol outperforms the snake protocol in almost all types of inputs we considered.

Abstract: Consider k particles, 1 red and k–1 white, chasing each other on the nodes of a graph G. If the red one catches one of the white, it ldquoinfectsrdquo it with its color. The newly red particles are now available to infect more white ones. When is it the case that all white will become red? It turns out that this simple question is an instance of information propagation between random walks and has important applications to mobilecomputing where a set of mobile hosts acts as an intermediary for the spread of information.
In this paper we model this problem by k concurrent random walks, one corresponding to the red particle and k–1 to the white ones. The infection time Tk of infecting all the white particles with red color is then a random variable that depends on k, the initial position of the particles, the number of nodes and edges of the graph, as well as on the structure of the graph.
We easily get that an upper bound on the expected value of Tk is the worst case (over all initial positions) expected meeting time m* of two random walks multiplied by THgr (log k). We demonstrate that this is, indeed, a tight bound; i.e. there is a graph G (a special case of the ldquolollipoprdquo graph), a range of values k

Abstract: A central problem in distributed computing and telecommunications
is the establishment of common knowledge between two computing
entities. An immediate use of such common knowledge is in the
initiation of a secure communication session between two entities
since the two entities may use this common knowledge in order to
produce a secret key for use with some symmetric cipher.
%
The dynamic establishment of shared information (e.g. secret key)
between two entities is particularly important in networks with no
predetermined structure such as wireless mobile ad-hoc networks.
In such networks, nodes establish and terminate communication
sessions dynamically with other nodes which may have never been
encountered before in order to somehow exchange information which
will enable them to subsequently communicate in a secure manner.
%
In this paper we give and theoretically analyze a protocol that
enables two entities initially possessing a string each to
securely eliminate inconsistent bit positions, obtaining strings
with a larger percentage of similarities. This can help the nodes
establish a shared set of bits and use it as a key with some
shared key encryption scheme.

Abstract: When one engineers distributed algorithms, some special characteristics
arise that are different from conventional (sequential or parallel)
computing paradigms. These characteristics include: the need for either a
scalable real network environment or a platform supporting a simulated
distributed environment; the need to incorporate asynchrony, where arbitrarya
synchrony is hard, if not impossible, to implement; and the generation
of “difficult” input instances which is a particular challenge. In this
work, we identifys ome of the methodological issues required to address
the above characteristics in distributed algorithm engineering and illustrate
certain approaches to tackle them via case studies. Our discussion
begins byad dressing the need of a simulation environment and how asynchronyis
incorporated when experimenting with distributed algorithms.
We then proceed bys uggesting two methods for generating difficult input
instances for distributed experiments, namelya game-theoretic one and another
based on simulations of adversarial arguments or lower bound proofs.
We give examples of the experimental analysis of a pursuit-evasion protocol
and of a shared memorypro blem in order to demonstrate these ideas.
We then address a particularlyi nteresting case of conducting experiments
with algorithms for mobilecomputing and tackle the important issue of
motion of processes in this context. We discuss the two-tier principle as
well as a concurrent random walks approach on an explicit representation
of motions in ad-hoc mobile networks, which allow at least for averagecase
analysis and measurements and may give worst-case inputs in some
cases. Finally, we discuss a useful interplay between theory and practice
that arise in modeling attack propagation in networks.

Abstract: The possibilities offered by utilizing sensors and pervasive computing technologies for creating large-scale multiplayer games are discussed in this chapter. Such game installations constitute a new social form of play taking place in public spaces. A main characteristic is the need to scale to a large number of users and engage players located simultaneously in dispersed areas, thus connected both on a local and Internet level. Fun in Numbers is a platform for developing and playing mobile, locative and collaborative distributed games and interactive installations, based on the participation of large numbers of people and their movement in the physical space. Players interact with each other using a wide range of hardware devices that are either generic (smartphones) or specific (sensor devices A set of related fundamental issues drawn upon the experience from several public events, where the FinN platform supported as many as 50 local users at the same time, is hereby presented.

Abstract: We extend here the Population Protocol model of Angluin et al. [2004] in order to model more powerful networks of very small resource-limited artefacts (agents) that are possibly mobile. Communication can happen only between pairs of artefacts. A communication graph (or digraph) denotes the permissible pairwise interactions. The main feature of our extended model is to allow edges of the communication graph, G, to have states that belong to a constant size set. We also allow edges to have readable only costs, whose values also belong to a constant size set. We then allow the protocol rules for pairwise interactions to modify the corresponding edge state. Thus, our protocol specifications are still independent of the population size and do not use agent ids, i.e. they preserve scalability, uniformity and anonymity. Our Mediated Population Protocols (MPP) can stably compute graph properties of the communication graph. We show this for the properties of maximal matchings (in undirected communication graphs), also for finding the transitive closure of directed graphs and for finding all edges of small cost. We demonstrate that our mediated protocols are stronger than the classical population protocols, by presenting a mediated protocol that stably computes the product of two positive integers, when G is the complete graph. This is not a semilinear predicate. To show this fact, we state and prove a general Theorem about the Composition of two stably computing mediated population protocols. We also show that all predicates stably computable in our model are (non-uniformly) in the class NSPACE(m), where m is the number of edges of the communication graph. We also define Randomized MPP and show that, any Peano predicate accepted by a MPP, can be verified in deterministic Polynomial Time.

Abstract: Recommender Systems (RSs) have been extensively utilized as a means of reducing the information overload and offering travel recommendations to tourists. The emerging mobile RSs are tailored to mobile device users and promise to substantially enrich tourist experiences, recommending rich multimedia content, context-aware services, views/ratings of peer users, etc. New developments in mobilecomputing, wireless networking, web technologies and social networking leverage massive opportunities to provide highly accurate and effective tourist recommendations that respect personal preferences and capture usage, personal, social and environmental contextual parameters. This article follows a systematic approach in reviewing the state-of-the-art in the field, proposing a classification of mobile tourism RSs and providing insights on their offered services. It also highlights challenges and promising research directions with respect to mobile RSs employed in tourism.

Abstract: This Volume contains the 11 papers corresponding to poster and demo presentations
accepted to the 7th ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Modeling,
Analysis and Simulation ofWireless and Mobile Systems (MSWiM 04),
that is held October 4-6, 2004, in Venice, Italy.
MSWiM 2004 (http://www.cs.unibo.it/mswim2004/) is intended to provide
an international forum for original ideas, recent results and achievements on
issues and challenges related to mobile and wireless systems.
A Call for Posters was announced and widely disseminated, soliciting posters
that report on recent original results or on-going research in the area of wireless
and mobile networks. Prospective authors were encouraged to submit interesting
results on all aspects of modeling, analysis and simulation of mobile and
wireless networks and systems. The scope and topics of the Posters Session
were the same as those included in the MSWiM Call for Papers (see above).
Poster presentations were meant to provide authors with early feedback on
their research work and enable them to present their research and exchange
ideas during the Symposium.
All submissions to the call for posters as well as selected papers submitted
to MSWiM 04 were considered and reviewed. The review process resulted in
accepting the set of 11 papers included in this Volume. Accepted posters will
also be on display during the Symposium.
The set of papers in this Proceedings covers a wide range of important topics
in wireless and mobilecomputing, including channel allocation in wireless
networks, quality of service provisioning in IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs, IP
mobility support, energy conservation, routing in mobile adhoc networks, resource
sharing, wireless access to the WWW, sensor networks etc. The performance
evaluation techniques used include both analysis and simulation.
We hope that the poster papers included in this Volume will facilitate a fruitful
and lively discussion and exchange of interesting and creative ideas during
the Symposium.
We wish to thank the MSWiM Steering Committee Chair Azzedine Boukerche
and the Program Co-Chairs ofMSWiM 04 Carla-Fabiana Chiasserini and
Lorenzo Donatiello for their valuable help in the selection procedure. Also, the
MSWiM 04 Publicity Co-Chairs Luciano Bononi, Helen Karatza and Mirela
Sechi Moretti Annoni Notare for disseminating the Call for Posters.
We wish to warmly thank the Poster Proceedings Chair Ioannis Chatzigiannakis
for carefully doing an excellent job in preparing the Volume you now
hold in your hands.

Abstract: Consider k particles, 1 red and k-1 white, chasing each other on the nodes of a graph G. If the red one catches one of the white, it “infects” it with its color. The newly red particles are now available to infect more white ones. When is it the case that all white will become red? It turns out that this simple question is an instance of information propagation between random walks and has important applications to mobilecomputing where a set of mobile hosts acts as an intermediary for the spread of information.
In this paper we model this problem by k concurrent random walks, one corresponding to the red particle and k-1 to the white ones. The infection time Tk of infecting all the white particles with red color is then a random variable that depends on k, the initial position of the particles, the number of nodes and edges of the graph, as well as on the structure of the graph.
In this work we develop a set of probabilistic tools that we use to obtain upper bounds on the (worst case w.r.t. initial positions of particles) expected value of Tk for general graphs and important special cases. We easily get that an upper bound on the expected value of Tk is the worst case (over all initial positions) expected meeting time m* of two random walks multiplied by . We demonstrate that this is, indeed, a tight bound; i.e. there is a graph G (a special case of the “lollipop” graph), a range of values k

Abstract: Today we are experiencing a major reconsideration of the computing
paradigm, as witnessed by the abundance and increasing frequency
of use of terms such as {\em ambient intelligence}, {\em ubiquitous computing}, {\em disappearing computer}, {\em grid
computer}, {\em global computing} and {\em mobile ad-hoc
networks}. Systems that can be described with such terms are of a
dynamic, with no clear physical boundary, nature and it seems that
it is impossible (or, at least, difficult) to define sharply a
number of important properties holding with certainty as well as
holding throughout the whole lifetime of the system.
%
One such system property, which is important for the viability of
a system, is {\em trust}. Our departure point is the assumption
that it seems very difficult to define static system properties
related to trust and expect that they hold eternally in the
rapidly changing systems falling under the new computing paradigm.
One should, rather, attempt to define trust in terms of properties
that hold with some limiting probability as the the system grows
and try to establish conditions that ensure that ``good''
properties hold {\em almost certainly}. Based on this viewpoint,
in this paper we provide a new framework for defining trust
through formally definable properties that hold, almost certainly,
in the limit in randomly growing combinatorial structures that
model ``shapeless'' computing systems (e.g. ad-hoc networks),
drawing on results that establish the threshold behavior of
predicates written in the first and second order logic.