Abstract: Core networks of the future will have a
translucent and eventually transparentoptical
structure. Ultra-high-speed end-to-end connectiv-
ity with high quality of service and high reliability
will be realized through the exploitation of opti-
mized protocols and lightpath routing algorithms.
These algorithms will complement a flexible con-
trol and management plane integrated in the
proposed solution. Physical layer impairments
and optical performance are monitored and
incorporated in impairment-aware lightpath rout-
ing algorithms. These algorithms will be integrat-
ed into a novel dynamic network planning tool
that will consider dynamic traffic characteristics,
a reconfigurable optical layer, and varying physi-
cal impairment and component characteristics.
The network planning tool along with extended
control planes will make it possible to realize the
vision of optical transparency. This article pre-
sents a novel framework that addresses dynamic
cross-layer network planning and optimization
while considering the development of a future
transport network infrastructure.
Abstract: We design and implement a multicost impairment- aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithm for online traffic. In transparentopticalnetworks the quality of a transmission degrades due to physical layer impairments. To serve a connection, the proposed algorithm finds a path and a free wavelength (a lightpath) that has acceptable signal quality performance by estimating a quality of transmission measure, called the Q factor. We take into account channel utilization in the network, which changes as new connections are established or released, in order to calculate the noise variances that correspond to physical impairments on the links. These, along with the time invariant eye impairment penalties of all candidate network paths, form the inputs to the algorithm. The multicost algorithm finds a set of so called non-dominated Q paths from the given source to the given destination. Various objective functions are then evaluated in order to choose the optimal lightpath to serve the connection. The proposed algorithm combines the strength of multicost optimization with low execution time, making it appropriate for serving online connections.
Abstract: Avertical perspective, ranging from management
and routing to physical layer options, concerning dynamic
network monitoring and compensation of impairments
(M&C),is given.Feasibility, reliability,and performance
improvements on reconﬁgurable transparentnetworksare
expected to arise from the consolidated assessment of network management and control speciﬁcations, as a more accurate evaluation of available M&C techniques. In the network
layer,physical parameters aware algorithms are foreseen to
pursue reliable network performance. In the physical layer,
some new M&C methods were developed and rating of the state-of-the-art reported in literature is given. Optical monitoring implementation and viability is discussed.
Abstract: Ever-increasing bandwidth demands and higher flexibility are the main challenges for the next generation optical core networks. A new trend in order to address these challenges is to consider the impairments of the lightpaths during the design of opticalnetworks. In our work, we focus on translucent opticalnetworks, where some lightpaths are routed transparently, whereas others go through a number of regenerators. We present a cost analysis of design strategies, which are based either on an exact Quality of Transmission (QoT) validation or on a relaxed one and attempt to reduce the amount of regenerators used. In the exact design strategy, regenerators are required if the QoT of a candidate lightpath is below a predefined threshold, assuming empty network conditions. In the relaxed strategy, this predefined threshold is lower, while it is assumed that the network is fully loaded. We evaluate techno-economically the suggested design solutions and also show that adding more flexibility to the optical nodes has a large impact to the total infrastructure cost.
Abstract: An enhanced impairment-aware path computation element (EPCE) for dynamic
transparentopticalnetworks is proposed and experimentally evaluated. The obtained results show
that by using the EPCE, light-path setup times of few seconds are achieved.
Abstract: This paper evaluates a centralised impairment-aware path restoration approach for GMPLScontrolled
transparentopticalnetworks. Experimental results on a 14-node network test-bed show successful
QoT compliant path restoration of around 3.6 seconds.
Abstract: We consider the offline version of the routing and
wavelength assignment (RWA) problem in transparent all-opticalnetworks. In such networks and in the absence of regenerators, the signal quality of transmission degrades due to physical layer
impairments. We initially present an algorithm for solving the static RWA problem based on an LP relaxation formulation that tends to yield integer solutions. To account for signal degradation due to physical impairments, we model the effects of the path length, the path hop count, and the interference among ligthpaths by imposing additional (soft) constraints on RWA. The objective of the resulting optimization problem is not only to serve the
connection requests using the available wavelengths, but also to minimize the total accumulated signal degradation on the selected lightpaths. Our simulation studies indicate that the proposed RWA algorithms select the lightpaths for the requested connections so as to avoid impairment generating sources, thus dramatically reducing the overall physical-layer blocking when compared to RWA algorithms that do not account for impairments.
Abstract: In translucent (or managed reach) WDM opticalnetworks, regenerators are employed at specific nodes. Some of
the connections in such networks are routed transparently, while
others have to go through a sequence of 3R regenerators that serve
as “refueling stations” to restore their quality of transmission
(QoT). We extend an online multicost algorithm for transparentnetworks presented in our previous study , to obtain an IA-RWA
algorithm that works in translucent networks and makes use,
when required, of the regenerators present at certain locations
of the network. To characterize a path, the algorithm uses a
multicost formulation with several cost parameters, including the
set of available wavelengths, the length of the path, the number of
regenerators used, and noise variance parameters that account for
the physical layer impairments. Given a new connection request
and the current utilization state of the network, the algorithm calculates
a set of non dominated candidate paths, meaning that any
path in this set is not inferior with respect to all cost parameters
than any other path. This set consists of all the cost-effective (in
terms of the domination relation) and feasible (in terms of QoT)
lightpaths for the given source-destination pair, including all the
possible combinations for the utilization of available regenerators
of the network. An optimization function or policy is then applied
to this set in order to select the optimal lightpath. Different optimization
policies correspond to different IA-RWA algorithms.
We propose and evaluate several optimization policies, such as the
most used wavelength, the best quality of transmission, the least
regeneration usage, or a combination of these rules. Our results
indicate that in a translucent network the employed IA-RWA
algorithm has to consider all problem parameters, namely, the
QoT of the lightpaths, the utilization of wavelengths and the
availability of regenerators, to efficiently serve the online traffic.
Abstract: We consider the offline version of the routing and
wavelength assignment (RWA) problem in transparent all-opticalnetworks. In such networks and in the absence of regenerators,
the signal quality of transmission degrades due to physical layer
impairments. Because of certain physical effects, routing choices
made for one lightpath affect and are affected by the choices made
for the other lightpaths. This interference among the lightpaths
is particularly difficult to formulate in an offline algorithm since,
in this version of the problem, we start without any established
connections and the utilization of lightpaths are the variables of
the problem.We initially present an algorithm for solving the pure
(without impairments) RWA problem based on a LP-relaxation
formulation that tends to yield integer solutions. Then, we extend
this algorithm and present two impairment-aware (IA) RWA algorithms
that account for the interference among lightpaths in their
formulation. The first algorithm takes the physical layer indirectly
into account by limiting the impairment-generating sources. The
second algorithm uses noise variance-related parameters to directly
account for the most important physical impairments. The
objective of the resulting cross-layer optimization problem is not
only to serve the connections using a small number of wavelengths
(network layer objective), but also to select lightpaths that have
acceptable quality of transmission (physical layer objective).
Simulations experiments using realistic network, physical layer,
and traffic parameters indicate that the proposed algorithms can
solve real problems within acceptable time.
Abstract: In future transparentopticalnetworks, it is
important to consider the impact of physical impairments in the
routing and wavelengths assignment process, to achieve efficient
connection provisioning. In this paper, we use classical multi-
objective optimization (MOO) strategies and particularly genetic
algorithms to jointly solve the impairment aware RWA (IA-
RWA) problem. Fiber impairments are indirectly considered
through the insertion of the path length and the number of
common hops in the optimization process. It is shown that
blocking is greatly improved, while the obtained solutions truly
converge towards the Pareto front that constitutes the set of
global optimum solutions. We have evaluated our findings, using
an Q estimator tool, that calculates the signal quality of each path
Index Terms RWA, Genetic Algorithm, All-OpticalNetworks, Multi Objective Optimization.
Abstract: We propose and evaluate an impairment-aware multi-parametric routing and wavelength assignment algorithm for online traffic in transparentopticalnetworks. In such networks the signal quality of transmission degrades due to physical layer impairments. In the multiparametric approach, a vector of cost parameters is assigned to each link, from which the cost vectors of candidate lightpaths are calculated. In the proposed scheme the cost vector includes impairment generating source parameters, such as the path length, the number of hops, the number of crosstalk sources and other inter-lightpath interfering parameters, so as to indirectly account for the physical layer effects. For a requested connection the algorithm calculates a set of candidate lightpaths, whose quality of transmission is validated using a function that combines the impairment generating parameters. For selecting the lightpath we propose and evaluate various optimization functions that correspond to different IA-RWA algorithms. Our performance results indicate that the proposed algorithms utilize efficiently the available resources and minimize the total accumulated signal degradation on the selected lightpaths, while having low execution times.
Abstract: The objective of this research is to propose two new optical procedures for packet routing and forwarding in the framework of transparentopticalnetworks. The single-wavelength label-recognition and packet-forwarding unit, which represents the central physical constituent of the switching node, is fully described in both cases. The first architecture is a hybrid opto-electronic structure relying on an optical serial-to-parallel converter designed to slow down the label processing. The remaining switching operations are done electronically. The routing system remains transparent for the packet payloads. The second architecture is an all-optical architecture and is based on the implementation of all-optical decoding of the parallelized label. The packet-forwarding operations are done optically. The major subsystems required in both of the proposed architectures are described on the basis of nonlinear effects in semiconductor optical amplifiers. The experimental results are compatible with the integration of the whole architecture. Those subsystems are a 4-bit time-to-wavelength converter, a pulse extraction circuit, a an optical wavelength generator, a 3 x 8 all-optical decoder and a packet envelope detector.
Abstract: We demonstrate the use of impairment constraint routing
for performance engineering of transparent metropolitan area
opticalnetworks. Our results show the relationship between
blocking probability and different network characteristics such
as span length, amplifier noise figure, and hit rate,and provide
information on the system specifications required to achieve
acceptable network performance.