Abstract: We investigate the practical merits of a parallel priority queue
through its use in the development of a fast and work-efficient parallel
shortest path algorithm, originally designed for an EREW PRAM. Our
study reveals that an efficient implementation on a real supercomputer
requires considerable effort to reduce the communication performance
(which in theory is assumed to take constant time). It turns out that the
most crucial part of the implementation is the mapping of the logical
processors to the physical processing nodes of the supercomputer. We
achieve the requested efficient mapping through a new graph-theoretic
result of independent interest: computing a Hamiltonian cycle on a directed
hyper-torus. No such algorithm was known before for the case of
directed hypertori. Our Hamiltonian cycle algorithm allows us to considerably
improve the communication cost and thus the overall performance
of our implementation.

Abstract: The objective of this research is to propose two new optical procedures for packet routing and forwarding in the framework of transparent optical networks. The single-wavelength label-recognition and packet-forwarding unit, which represents the central physical constituent of the switching node, is fully described in both cases. The first architecture is a hybrid opto-electronic structure relying on an optical serial-to-parallel converter designed to slow down the label processing. The remaining switching operations are done electronically. The routing system remains transparent for the packet payloads. The second architecture is an all-optical architecture and is based on the implementation of all-optical decoding of the parallelized label. The packet-forwarding operations are done optically. The major subsystems required in both of the proposed architectures are described on the basis of nonlinear effects in semiconductor optical amplifiers. The experimental results are compatible with the integration of the whole architecture. Those subsystems are a 4-bit time-to-wavelength converter, a pulse extraction circuit, a an optical wavelength generator, a 3 x 8 all-optical decoder and a packet envelope detector.

Abstract: We consider the problem of preprocessing an n-vertex digraph with real edge weights so that subsequent queries for the shortest path or distance between any two vertices can be efficiently answered. We give parallel algorithms for the EREW PRAM model of computation that depend on the treewidth of the input graph. When the treewidth is a constant, our algorithms can answer distance queries in O({\'a}(n)) time using a single processor, after a preprocessing of O(log2n) time and O(n) work, where {\'a}(n) is the inverse of Ackermann's function. The class of constant treewidth graphs contains outerplanar graphs and series-parallel graphs, among others. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first parallel algorithms which achieve these bounds for any class of graphs except trees. We also give a dynamic algorithm which, after a change in an edge weight, updates our data structures in O(log n) time using O(n{\^a}) work, for any constant 0 < {\^a} < 1. Moreover, we give an algorithm of independent interest: computing a shortest path tree, or finding a negative cycle in O(log2n) time using O(n) work.