Abstract: Smart Dust is comprised of a vast number of ultra-small fully autonomous computing and communication devices, with very restricted energy and computing capabilities, that co-operate to accomplish a large sensing task. Smart Dust can be very useful in practice i.e. in the local detection of a remote crucial event and the propagation of data reporting its realization to a control center.
In this work, we have implemented and experimentally evaluated four protocols (PFR, LTP and two variations of LTP which we here introduce) for local detection and propagation in smart dust networks, under new, more general and realistic modelling assumptions. We comparatively study, by using extensive experiments, their behavior highlighting their relative advantages and disadvantages. All protocols are very successful. In the setting we considered here, PFR seems to be faster while the LTP based protocols are more energy efficient.

Abstract: Smart Dust is comprised of a vast number of ultra-small fully autonomous computing and communication devices, with very restricted energy and computing capabilities, that co-operate to accomplish a large sensing task. Smart Dust can be very useful in practice i.e. in the local detection of a remote crucial event and the propagation of data reporting its realization to a control center.
In this work, we have implemented and experimentally evaluated four protocols (PFR, LTP and two variations of LTP which we here introduce) for local detection and propagation in smart dust networks, under new, more general and realistic modelling assumptions. We comparatively study, by using extensive experiments, their behavior highlighting their relative advantages and disadvantages. All protocols are very successful. In the setting we considered here, PFR seems to be faster while the LTP based protocols are more energy efficient.

Abstract: Many of the network security protocols employed today utilize symmetric block ciphers (DES, AES and CAST etc). The majority of the symmetric block ciphers implement the crucial substitution operation using look up tables, called substitution boxes. These structures should be highly nonlinear and have bit dispersal, i.e. avalanche, properties in order to render the cipher with resistant to cryptanalysis attempts, such as linear and differential cryptanalysis. Highly secure substitution boxes can be constructed using particular Boolean functions as components that have certain mathematical properties which enhance the robustness of the whole cryptoalgorithm. However, enforcing these properties on SBoxes is a highly computationally intensive task. In this paper, we present a distributed algorithm and its implementation on a computing cluster that accelerates the construction of secure substitution boxes with good security properties. It is fully parametric since it can employ any class of Boolean functions with algorithmically definable properties and can construct SBoxes of arbitrary sizes. We demonstrate the efficiency of the distributed algorithm implementation compared to its sequential counterpart, in a number of experiments.

Abstract: Core networks of the future will have a
translucent and eventually transparent optical
structure. Ultra-high-speed end-to-end connectiv-
ity with high quality of service and high reliability
will be realized through the exploitation of opti-
mized protocols and lightpath routing algorithms.
These algorithms will complement a flexible con-
trol and management plane integrated in the
proposed solution. Physical layer impairments
and optical performance are monitored and
incorporated in impairment-aware lightpath rout-
ing algorithms. These algorithms will be integrat-
ed into a novel dynamic network planning tool
that will consider dynamic traffic characteristics,
a reconfigurable optical layer, and varying physi-
cal impairment and component characteristics.
The network planning tool along with extended
control planes will make it possible to realize the
vision of optical transparency. This article pre-
sents a novel framework that addresses dynamic
cross-layer network planning and optimization
while considering the development of a future
transport network infrastructure.

Abstract: In mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs), the mobility of the nodes is a complicating factor that significantly affects the effectiveness and performance of the routing protocols. Our work builds upon recent results on the effect of node mobility on the performance of available routing strategies (i.e.~path based, using support) and proposes a protocol framework that exploits the usually different mobility rates of the nodes by adapting the routing strategy during execution. We introduce a metric for the relative mobility of the nodes, according to which the nodes are classified into mobility classes. These mobility classes determine, for any pair of an origin and destination, the routing technique that best corresponds to their mobility properties. Moreover, special care is taken for nodes remaining almost stationary or moving with high (relative) speeds. Our key design goal is to limit the necessary implementation changes required to incorporate existing routing protocols in to our framework. We provide extensive evaluation of the proposed framework, using a well-known simulator (NS2). Our first findings demonstrate that the proposed framework improves, in certain cases, the performance of the existing routing protocols.

Abstract: In ad-hoc mobile networks (MANET), the mobility of the nodes is a complicating factor that significantly affects the effectiveness and performance of the routing protocols. Our work builds upon the recent results on the effect of node mobility on the performance of available routing strategies (i.e.~path based, using support) and proposes a protocol framework that exploits the usually different mobility rates of the nodes by adopting the routing strategy during execution. We introduce a metric for the relative mobility of the nodes, according to which the nodes are classified into mobility classes. These mobility classes determine, for any pair of origin and destination, the routing technique that best corresponds to their mobility properties. Moreover, special care is taken for nodes remaining almost stationary or moving with high (relative) speeds. Our key design goal is to limit the necessery implementation changes required to incorporate existing routing protocols in our framework. We provide extensive evaluation of the proposed framework, using a well-known simulator (NS2). Our first findings demonstrate that the proposed framework improves, in certain cases, the performance of the existing routing protocols.

Abstract: We propose a simple obstacle model to be used while simulating wireless sensor networks. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time such an integrated and systematic obstacle model for these networks has been proposed. We define several types of obstacles that can be found inside the deployment area of a wireless sensor network and provide a categorization of these obstacles based on their nature (physical and communication obstacles, i.e. obstacles that are formed out of node distribution patterns or have physical presence, respectively), their shape and their change of nature over time. We make an eXtension to a custom-made sensor network simulator (simDust) and conduct a number of simulations in order to study the effect of obstacles on the performance of some representative (in terms of their logic) data propagation protocols for wireless sensor networks. Our findings confirm that obstacle presence has a significant impact on protocol performance, and also that different obstacle shapes and sizes may affect each protocol in different ways. This provides an insight into how a routing protocol will perform in the presence of obstacles and highlights possible protocol shortcomings. Moreover, our results show that the effect of obstacles is not directly related to the density of a sensor network, and cannot be emulated only by changing the network density.

Abstract: We present an implementation ofan EC cryptographic library
targeting three main objectives: portability, modularity, and ease
ofu se. Our goal is to provide a fully-equipped library ofp ortable source
code with clearly separated modules that allows for easy development of
EC cryptographic protocols, and which can be readily tailored to suit
different requirements and user needs. We discuss several implementation
issues regarding the development oft he library and report on some
preliminary experiments.

Abstract: Motivated by emerging applications, we consider sensor networks where the sensors themselves (not just the sinks) are mobile. Furthermore, we focus on mobility scenarios characterized by heterogeneous, highly changing mobility roles in the network. To capture these high dynamics of diverse sensory motion we propose a novel network parameter,
the mobility level, which, although simple and local, quite accurately takes into account both the spatial and speed characteristics of motion. We then propose adaptive data dissemination protocols that use the mobility level estimation to optimize performance, by basically exploiting high mobility (redundant message ferrying) as a cost-effective replacement of flooding, e.g. the sensors tend to dynamically propagate less data in the presence
of high mobility, while nodes of high mobility are favored for moving data around. These dissemination schemes are enhanced by a distance-sensitive probabilistic message flooding inhibition mechanism that further reduces communication cost, especially for fast nodes of high mobility level, and as distance to data destination decreases. Our simulation findings
demonstrate significant performance gains of our protocols compared to non-adaptive protocols, i.e. adaptation increases the success rate and reduces latency (even by 15%) while at the same time significantly reducing energy dissipation (in most cases by even 40%). Also, our adaptive schemes achieve significantly higher message delivery ratio and
satisfactory energy-latency trade-offs when compared to flooding when sensor nodes have
limited message queues.

Abstract: We introduce a new modelling assumption for wireless sensor networks, that of node redeployment (addition of sensor devices during protocol evolution) and we extend the modelling assumption of heterogeneity (having sensor devices of various types). These two features further increase the highly dynamic nature of such networks and adaptation becomes a powerful technique for protocol design. Under these modelling assumptions, we design, implement and evaluate a new power conservation scheme for efficient data propagation. Our scheme is adaptive: it locally monitors the network conditions (density, energy) and accordingly adjusts the sleep-awake schedules of the nodes towards improved operation choices. The scheme is simple, distributed and does not require exchange of control messages between nodes.
Implementing our protocol in software we combine it with two well-known data propagation protocols and evaluate the achieved performance through a detailed simulation study using our extended version of the network simulator ns-2. We focus on highly dynamic scenarios with respect to network density, traffic conditions and sensor node resources. We propose a new general and parameterized metric capturing the trade-offs between delivery rate, energy efficiency and latency. The simulation findings demonstrate significant gains (such as more than doubling the success rate of the well-known Directed Diffusion propagation protocol) and good trade-offs achieved. Furthermore, the redeployment of additional sensors during network evolution and/or the heterogeneous deployment of sensors, drastically improve (when compared to ``equal total power" simultaneous deployment of identical sensors at the start) the protocol performance (i.e. the success rate increases up to four times} while reducing energy dissipation and, interestingly, keeping latency low).

Abstract: Clustering is a crucial network design approach to enable large-scale wireless sensor networks (WSNs) deployments. A large variety of clustering approaches has been presented focusing on different performance metrics. Such protocols usually aim at minimizing communication overhead, evenly distributing roles among the participating nodes, as well as controlling the network topology. Simulations on such protocols are performed using theoretical models that are based on unrealistic assumptions like the unit disk graph communication model, ideal wireless communication channels and perfect energy consumption estimations. With these assumptions taken for granted, theoretical models claim various performance milestones that cannot be achieved in realistic conditions. In this paper, we design a new clustering protocol that adapts to the changes in the environment and the needs and goals of the user applications. We address the issues that hinder its performance due to the real environment conditions and provide a deployable protocol. The implementation, integration and experimentation of this new protocol and it's optimizations, were performed using the \textsf{WISEBED} framework. We apply our protocol in multiple indoors wireless sensor testbeds with multiple experimental scenarios to showcase scalability and trade-offs between network properties and configurable protocol parameters. By analysis of the real world experimental output, we present results that depict a more realistic view of the clustering problem, regarding adapting to environmental conditions and the quality of topology control. Our study clearly demonstrates the applicability of our approach and the benefits it offers to both research \& development communities.

Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks are by nature highly dynamic and communication between sensors is completely ad hoc, especially when mobile devices are part of the setup. Numerous protocols and applications proposed for such networks
operate on the assumption that knowledge of the neighborhood is a priori available to all nodes. As a result, WSN deployments need to use or implement from scratch a neighborhood discovery mechanism. In this work we present a new protocol based on adaptive periodic beacon exchanges. We totally avoid continuous beaconing by adjusting the rate of broadcasts using the concept of consistency over the understanding of neighborhood that nearby devices share. We propose, implement and evaluate our adaptive neighborhood discovery protocol over our experimental testbed and using large scale simulations. Our results indicate that the
new protocol operates more eciently than existing reference implementations while it provides valid information to applications that use it. Extensive performance evaluation indicates that it successfully reduces generated network traffic by 90% and increases network lifetime by 20% compared to existing mechanisms that rely on continuous beaconing.

Abstract: Motivated by emerging applications, we consider sensor networks where the sensors themselves
(not just the sinks) are mobile. Furthermore, we focus on mobility
scenarios characterized by heterogeneous, highly changing mobility
roles in the network.
To capture these high dynamics of diverse sensory motion
we propose a novel network parameter, the mobility level, which, although
simple and local, quite accurately takes into account both the
spatial and speed characteristics of motion. We then propose
adaptive data dissemination protocols that use the
mobility level estimation to optimize performance, by basically
exploiting high mobility (redundant message ferrying) as a cost-effective
replacement of flooding, e.g., the sensors tend to dynamically propagate
less data in the presence of high mobility, while nodes of high mobility
are favored for moving data around.
These dissemination schemes are enhanced by a distance-sensitive
probabilistic message flooding inhibition mechanism that
further reduces communication cost, especially for fast nodes
of high mobility level, and as distance to data destination
decreases. Our simulation findings demonstrate significant
performance gains of our protocols compared to non-adaptive
protocols, i.e., adaptation increases the success rate and reduces
latency (even by 15\%) while at the same time significantly
reducing energy dissipation (in most cases by even 40\%).
Also, our adaptive schemes achieve significantly
higher message delivery ratio and satisfactory energy-latency
trade-offs when compared to flooding when sensor nodes have limited message queues.

Abstract: Motivated by emerging applications, we consider sensor networks where the sensors themselves
(not just the sinks) are mobile. We focus on mobility
scenarios characterized by heterogeneous, highly changing mobility
roles in the network.
To capture these high dynamics
we propose a novel network parameter, the mobility level, which, although
simple and local, quite accurately takes into account both the
spatial and speed characteristics of motion. We then propose
adaptive data dissemination protocols that use the
mobility level estimation to improve performance. By basically
exploiting high mobility (redundant message ferrying) as a cost-effective
replacement of flooding, e.g., the sensors tend to dynamically propagate
less data in the presence of high mobility, while nodes of high mobility
are favored for moving data around.
These dissemination schemes are enhanced by a distance-sensitive
probabilistic message flooding inhibition mechanism that
further reduces communication cost, especially for fast nodes
of high mobility level, and as distance to data destination
decreases. Our simulation findings demonstrate significant
performance gains of our protocols compared to non-adaptive
protocols, i.e., adaptation increases the success rate and reduces
latency (even by 15\%) while at the same time significantly
reducing energy dissipation (in most cases by even 40\%).
Also, our adaptive schemes achieve significantly
higher message delivery ratio and satisfactory energy-latency
trade-offs when compared to flooding when sensor nodes have limited message queues.

Abstract: Data propagation in wireless sensor networks can be performed either by hop-by-hop single transmissions or by multi-path broadcast of data. Although several energy-aware MAC layer protocols exist that operate very well in the case of single point-to-point transmissions, none is especially designed and suitable for multiple broadcast transmissions. The key idea of our protocols is the passive monitoring of local network conditions and the adaptation of the protocol operation accordingly. The main contribution of our adaptive method is to proactively avoid collisions by implicitly and early enough sensing the need for collision avoidance. Using the above ideas, we design, implement and evaluate three different, new strategies for proactive adaptation. We show, through a detailed and extended simulation evaluation, that our parameter-based family of protocols for multi-path data propagation significantly reduce the number of collisions and thus increase the rate of successful message delivery (to above 90%) by achieving satisfactory trade-offs with the average propagation delay. At the same time, our protocols are shown to be very energy efficient, in terms of the average energy dissipation per delivered message.

Abstract: We consider sensor networks where the sensor nodes are attached on entities that move in a highly dynamic, heterogeneous manner. To capture this mobility diversity we introduce a new network parameter, the direction-aware mobility
level, which measures how fast and close each mobile node is expected to get to the data destination (the sink). We then provide local, distributed data dissemination protocols
that adaptively exploit the node mobility to improve performance. In particular, "high" mobility is used as a low cost replacement for data dissemination (due to the ferrying of data), while in the case of "low" mobility either a) data propagation redundancy is increased (when highly mobile neighbors exist) or b) long-distance data transmissions are used (when the entire neighborhood is of low mobility) to accelerate data dissemination towards the sink. An extensive performance comparison to relevant methods from
the state of the art demonstrates signicant improvements i.e. latency is reduced by even 4 times while keeping energy dissipation and delivery success at very satisfactory levels.

Abstract: We investigate the problem of ecient wireless energy recharging in Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks (WRSNs). In
such networks a special mobile entity (called the Mobile Charger) traverses the network and wirelessly replenishes the energy
of sensor nodes. In contrast to most current approaches, we envision methods that are distributed, adaptive and use limited
network information. We propose three new, alternative protocols for ecient recharging, addressing key issues which we
identify, most notably (i) to what extent each sensor should be recharged (ii) what is the best split of the total energy between
the charger and the sensors and (iii) what are good trajectories the MC should follow. One of our protocols (
LRP
) performs
some distributed, limited sampling of the network status, while another one (
RTP
) reactively adapts to energy shortage alerts
judiciously spread in the network. As detailed simulations demonstrate, both protocols signicantly outperform known state
of the art methods, while their performance gets quite close to the performance of the global knowledge method (
GKP
) we
also provide, especially in heterogeneous network deployments.

Abstract: In this paper, we propose simple protocols for enabling two communicating agents that may have never met before to extract common knowledge out of any initial knowledge that each of them possesses. The initial knowledge from which the agents start, may even be independent of each other, implying that the two agents need not have had previous access to common information sources. In addition, the common knowledge extracted upon the termination of the protocols depends, in a fair way, on the (possibly independent) information items initially known, separately, by the two agents. It is fair in the sense that there is a negotiation between the two agents instead of one agent forcing the other to conform to its own knowledge. These protocols, may be extended in order to support security applications where the establishment of a common knowledge is required. Moreover, the implementation of the protocols leads to reasonably small code that can also fit within resource limited devices involved in any communication network while, at the same time, it is efficient as simulation results demonstrate.

Abstract: Wireless sensor networks are comprised of a vast number of
ultra-small autonomous computing, communication and sensing devices,
with restricted energy and computing capabilities, that co-operate
to accomplish a large sensing task. Such networks can be very useful
in practice, e.g.~in the local monitoring of ambient conditions and
reporting them to a control center. In this paper we propose a
distributed group key establishment protocol that uses mobile agents
(software) and is particularly suitable for energy constrained,
dynamically evolving ad-hoc networks. Our approach totally avoids
the construction and the maintenance of a distributed structure that
reflects the topology of the network. Moreover, it trades-off
complex message exchanges by performing some amount of additional
local computations in order to be applicable at dense and dynamic
sensor networks. The extra computations are simple for the devices
to implement and are evenly distributed across the participants of
the network leading to good energy balance. We evaluate the
performance of our protocol in a simulated environment and compare
our results with existing group key establishment protocols. The
security of the protocol is based on the Diffie-Hellman problem and
we used in our experiments its elliptic curve analog. Our findings
basically indicate the feasibility of implementing our protocol in
real sensor network devices and highlight the advantages and
disadvantages of each approach given the available technology and
the corresponding efficiency (energy, time) criteria.

Abstract: As a result of recent significant technological advances, a new computing and communication environment, Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET), is about to enter the mainstream. A multitude of critical aspects, including mobility, severe limitations and limited reliability, create a new set of crucial issues and trade-offs that must be carefully taken into account in the design of robust and efficient algorithms for these environments. The communication among mobile hosts is one among the many issues that need to be resolved efficiently before MANET becomes a commodity.
In this paper, we propose to discuss the communication problem in MANET as well as present some characteristic techniques for the design, the analysis and the performance evaluation of distributed communication protocols for mobile ad hoc networks. More specifically, we propose to review two different design techniques. While the first type of protocols tries to create and maintain routing paths among the hosts, the second set of protocols uses a randomly moving subset of the hosts that acts as an intermediate pool for receiving and delivering messages. We discuss the main design choices for each approach, along with performance analysis of selected protocols.

Abstract: In this work, we study the Population Protocol model of Angluin et al. from the perspective of protocol verification. In particular, we are interested in algorithmically solving the problem of determining whether a given population protocol conforms to its specifications. Since this is the first work on verification of population protocols, we redefine most notions of population protocols in order to make them suitable for algorithmic verification. Moreover, we formally define the general verification problem and some interesting special cases. All these problems are shown to be NP-hard. We next propose some first algorithmic solutions for a natural special case. Finally, we conduct experiments and algorithmic engineering in order to improve our verifiers' running times.

Abstract: We introduce a new modelling assumption in wireless sensor networks, that of node redeployment (addition of sensor devices during the protocol evolution) and we extend the modelling assumption of heterogeneity (having sensor devices of various types). These two features further increase the highly dynamic nature of such networks and adaptation becomes a powerful technique for protocol design. Under this model, we design, implement and evaluate a power conservation scheme for efficient data propagation. Our protocol is adaptive: it locally monitors the network conditions (density, energy) and accordingly adjusts the sleep-awake schedules of the nodes towards best operation choices. Our protocol operates does not require exchange of control messages between nodes to coordinate.Implementing our protocol we combine it with two well-known data propagation protocols and evaluate the achieved performance through a detailed simulation study using our extended version of Ns2. We focus in highly dynamic scenarios with respect to network density, traffic conditions and sensor node resources. We propose a new general and parameterized metric capturing the trade-off between delivery rate, energy efficiency and latency. The simulation findings demonstrate significant gains (such as more than doubling the success rate of the well-known Directed Diffusion propagation paradigm) and good trade-offs. Furthermore, redeployment of sensors during network evolution and/or heterogeneous deployment of sensors drastically improve (when compared to equal total "power" simultaneous deployment of identical sensors at the start) the protocol performance (the success rate increases up to four times while reducing energy dissipation and, interestingly, keeping latency low).

Abstract: In this paper, a novel configuration is proposed for
the implementation of an almost all-optical switch architecture
called the scheduling switch, which when combined with appropriate
wait-for-reservation or tell-and-go connection and flow
control protocols provides lossless communication for traffic
that satisfies certain smoothness properties. An all-optical 2 2
exchange/bypass (E/B) switch based on the nonlinear operation
of a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) is considered as the
basic building block of the scheduling switch as opposed to active
SOA-based space switches that use injection current to switch
between ON and OFF states. The experimental demonstration of
the optically addressable 2 2 E/B, which is summarized for
10–Gb/s data packets as well as synchronous digital hierarchy
(SDH)/STM-64 data frames, ensures the feasibility of the proposed
configuration at high speeds, with low switching energy and low
losses during the scheduling process. In addition, it provides
reduction of the number of required components for the construction
of the scheduling switch, which is calculated to be 50% in the
number of active elements and 33% in the fiber length.

Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks are complex systems consisting of a number of relatively simple autonomous sensing devices spread on a geographical area. The peculiarity of these devices lies on the constraints they face in relation to their energy reserves and their computational, storage and communication capabilities. The utility of these sensors is to measure certain environmental conditions and to detect critical events in relation to these measurements. Those events thereupon have to be reported to a specific central station namely the “sink”. This data propagation generally has the form of a hop-by-hop transmission. In this framework we work on distributed data propagation protocols which are taking into account the energy reserves of the sensors. In particular following the work of Chatzigiannakis et al. on the Probabilistic Forwarding Protocol (PFR) we present the distributed probabilistic protocol EFPFR, which favors transmission from the less depleted sensors in addition to favor transmissions close to the “optimal line”. This protocol is simple and relies only on local information for propagation decisions. Its main goal is to limit the total amount of energy dissipated per event and therefore to extend the network’s operation duration.

Abstract: We investigate basic communication protocols in ad-hoc mobile networks. We follow the semi-compulsory approach according to which a small part of the mobile users, the support , that moves in a predetermined way is used as an intermediate pool for receiving and delivering messages. Under this approach, we present a new semi-compulsory protocol called the runners in which the members of perform concurrent and continuous random walks and exchange any information given to them by senders when they meet. We also conduct a comparative experimental study of the runners protocol with another existing semi-compulsory protocol, called the snake, in which the members of move in a coordinated way and always remain pairwise adjacent. The experimental evaluation has been carried out in a new generic framework that we developed to implement protocols for mobile computing. Our experiments showed that for both protocols only a small support is required for efficient communication, and that the runners protocol outperforms the snake protocol in almost all types of inputs we considered.

Abstract: We study the problem of greedy, single path data propaga-
tion in wireless sensor networks, aiming mainly to minimize
the energy dissipation. In particular, we rst mathemat-
ically analyze and experimentally evaluate the energy e-
ciency and latency of three characteristic protocols, each one
selecting the next hop node with respect to a dierent cri-
terion (minimum projection, minimum angle and minimum
distance to the destination). Our analytic and simulation
ndings suggest that any single criterion does not simulta-
neously satisfy both energy eciency and low latency. To-
wards parameterized energy-latency trade-os we provide as
well hybrid combinations of the two criteria (direction and
proximity to the sink). Our hybrid protocols achieve sig-
nicant perfomance gains and allow ne-tuning of desired
performance. Also, they have nice energy balance proper-
ties, and can prolong the network lifetime.

Abstract: We propose and evaluate fast reservation (FR)
protocols for Optical Burst Switched (OBS) networks. The
proposed reservation schemes aim at reducing the end-to-end
delay of a data burst, by sending the Burst Header Packet (BHP)
in the core network before the burst assembly is completed at the
ingress node. We use linear prediction filters to estimate the
expected length of the burst and the time needed for the
burstification process to complete. A BHP packet carrying these
estimates is sent before burst completion, in order to reserve
bandwidth at each intermediate node for the time interval the
burst is expected to pass from that node. Reducing the total time
needed for a packet to be transported over an OBS network is
important, especially for real-time applications. Reserving
bandwidth only for the time interval it is actual going to be used
by a burst is important for network utilization efficiency. In the
simulations conducted we evaluate the proposed extensions and
prove their usefulness.

Abstract: In this work, we study the propagation of influence and computation in dynamic networks that are possibly disconnected at every instant. We focus on a synchronous message passing communication model with broadcast and bidirectional links. To allow for bounded end-to-end communication we propose a set of minimal temporal connectivity conditions that bound from the above the time it takes for information to make progress in the network. We show that even in dynamic networks that are disconnected at every instant information may spread as fast as in networks that are connected at every instant. Further, we investigate termination criteria when the nodes know some upper bound on each of the temporal connectivity conditions. We exploit our termination criteria to provide efficient protocols (optimal in some cases) that solve the fundamental counting and all-to-all token dissemination (or gossip) problems. Finally, we show that any protocol that is correct in instantaneous connectivity networks can be adapted to work in temporally connected networks.

Abstract: In this work, we study the propagation of influence and computation in dynamic distributed computing systems that are possibly disconnected at every instant. We focus on a synchronous message-passing communication model with broadcast and bidirectional links. Our network dynamicity assumption is a worst-case dynamicity controlled by an adversary scheduler, which has received much attention recently. We replace the usual (in worst-case dynamic networks) assumption that the network is connected at every instant by minimal temporal connectivity conditions. Our conditions only require that another causal influence occurs within every time window of some given length. Based on this basic idea, we define several novel metrics for capturing the speed of information spreading in a dynamic network. We present several results that correlate these metrics. Moreover, we investigate termination criteria in networks in which an upper bound on any of these metrics is known. We exploit our termination criteria to provide efficient (and optimal in some cases) protocols that solve the fundamental counting and all-to-all token dissemination (or gossip) problems.

Abstract: In this paper we present a protocol for Certified E-Mail that ensures temporal authentication. We first slightly modify a previously known three-message optimistic protocol in order to obtain a building block that meets some properties. We then extend this basic protocol enhancing it with the temporal authentication by adding a single message, improving the message complexity of known protocols. The fairness of the protocol is ensured by an off-line Trusted third party that joins the protocol only in case one of the players misbehaves. In order to guarantee temporal authentication we assume the existance of an on-line time stamping server.

Abstract: We study the problem of energy-balanced data propagation in wireless sensor networks. The energy balance property is crucial for maximizing the time the network is functional, by avoiding early energy depletion of a large portion of sensors. We propose a distributed, adaptive data propagation algorithm that exploits limited, local network density information for achieving energy-balance while at the same time
minimizing energy dissipation.
We investigate both uniform and heterogeneous sensor placement distributions. By a detailed experimental evaluation and comparison with well-known energy-balanced protocols, we show that our density-based protocol improves energy efficiency signicantly while also having better energy balance properties.
Furthermore, we compare the performance of our protocol with a centralized, o-line optimum solution derived by a linear program which maximizes the network lifetime and show that it achieves near-optimal performance for uniform sensor deployments.

Abstract: One problem that frequently arises is the establishment of a
secure connection between two network nodes. There are many key
establishment protocols that are based on Trusted Third Parties or
public key cryptography which are in use today. However, in the
case of networks with frequently changing topology and size
composed of nodes of limited computation power, such as the ad-hoc
and sensor networks, such an approach is difficult to apply. One
way of attacking this problem for such networks is to have the two
nodes share some piece of information that will, subsequently,
enable them to transform this information into a shared
communication key.
%
Having each pair of network nodes share some piece of information
is, often, achieved through appropriate {\em key pre-distribution}
schemes. These schemes work by equipping each network node with a
set of candidate key values, some of which shared with other
network nodes possessing other keys sets. Later, when two nodes
meet, they can employ a suitable key establishment protocol in
order to locate shared values and used them for the creation of
the communication key.
%
In this paper we give a formal definition of collusion resistant
key predistribution schemes and then propose such a scheme based
on probabilistically created set systems. The resulting key sets
are shown to have a number of desirable properties that ensure the
confidentiality of communication sessions against collusion
attacks by other network nodes.

Abstract: This chapter aims at presenting certain important aspects of the design of lightweight, event-driven algorithmic solutions for data dissemination in wireless sensor networks that provide support for reliable, efficient and concurrency-intensive operation. We wish to emphasize that efficient solutions at several levels are needed, e.g.~higher level energy efficient routing protools and lower level power management schemes. Furthermore, it is important to combine such different level methods into integrated protocols and approaches. Such solutions must be simple, distributed and local. Two useful algorithmic design principles are randomization (to trade-off efficiency and fault-tolerance) and adaptation (to adjust to high network dynamics towards improved operation). In particular, we provide a) a brief description of the technical specifications of state-of-the-art sensor devices b) a discussion of possible models used to abstract such networks, emphasizing heterogeneity, c) some representative power management schemes, and d) a presentation of some characteristic protocols for data propagation. Crucial efficiency properties of these schemes and protocols (and their combinations, in some cases) are investigated by both rigorous analysis and performance evaluations through large scale simulations.

Abstract: We survey here some recent computational models for networks of tiny artifacts. In particular, we focus on networks consisting of artifacts with sensing capabilities. We first imagine the artifacts moving passively, that is, being mobile but unable to control their own movement. This leads us to the population protocol model of Angluin et al. (2004) [16]. We survey this model and some of its recent enhancements. In particular, we also present the mediated population protocol model in which the interaction links are capable of storing states and the passively mobile machines model in which the finite state nature of the agents is relaxed and the agents become multitape Turing machines that use a restricted space. We next survey the sensor field model, a general model capturing some identifying characteristics of many sensor network¢s settings. A sensor field is composed of kinds of devices that can communicate one to the other and also to the environment through input/output data streams. We, finally, present simulation results between sensor fields and population protocols and analyze the capability of their variants to decide graph properties

Abstract: In this chapter, our focus is on computational network analysis from a theoretical point of view. In particular, we study the \emph{propagation of influence and computation in dynamic distributed computing systems}. We focus on a \emph{synchronous message passing} communication model with bidirectional links. Our network dynamicity assumption is a \emph{worst-case dynamicity} controlled by an adversary scheduler, which has received much attention recently. We first study the fundamental \emph{naming} and \emph{counting} problems (and some variations) in
networks that are \emph{anonymous}, \emph{unknown}, and possibly dynamic. Network dynamicity is modeled here by the \emph{1-interval connectivity model}, in which communication is synchronous and a (worst-case) adversary
chooses the edges of every round subject to the condition that each instance is connected. We then replace this quite strong assumption by minimal \emph{temporal connectivity} conditions. These conditions only require that \emph{another causal influence occurs within every time-window of some given length}. Based on this basic idea we define several novel metrics for capturing the speed of information spreading in a dynamic network. We present several results that correlate these metrics. Moreover, we investigate \emph{termination criteria} in networks in which an upper bound on any of these metrics is known. We exploit these termination criteria to provide efficient (and optimal in some cases) protocols that solve the fundamental \emph{counting} and \emph{all-to-all token dissemination} (or \emph{gossip}) problems. Finally, we propose another model of worst-case temporal connectivity, called \emph{local
communication windows}, that assumes a fixed underlying communication network and restricts the adversary to allow communication between local neighborhoods in every time-window of some fixed length. We prove some basic properties and provide a protocol for counting in this model.

Abstract: We work on an extension of the Population Protocol model of Angluin et al. that allows edges of the communication graph, G, to have states that belong to a constant size set. In this extension, the so called Mediated Population Protocol model (MPP), both uniformity and anonymity are preserved. We here study a simplified version of MPP, the Graph Decision Mediated Population Protocol model (GDM), in order to capture MPP's ability to decide (stably compute) graph languages (sets of communication graphs). To understand properties of the communication graph is an important step in almost any distributed system. We prove that any graph language is undecidable if we allow disconnected communication graphs. As a result, we focus on studying the computational limits of the GDM model in (at least) weakly connected communication graphs only and give several examples of decidable graph languages in this case. To do so, we also prove that the class of decidable graph languages is closed under complement, union and intersection operations. Node and edge parity, bounded out-degree by a constant, existence of a node with more incoming than outgoing neighbors and existence of some directed path of length at least k=O(1) are some examples of properties whose decidability is proven. To prove the decidability of graph languages we provide protocols (GDMs) for them and exploit the closure results. Finally, we prove the existence of symmetry in two specific communication (sub)graphs which we believe is the first step towards the proof of impossibility results in the GDM model. In particular, we prove that there exists no GDM, whose states eventually stabilize, to decide whether G contains some directed cycle of length 2 (2-cycle).

Abstract: In this work we investigate the problem of communication among mobile hosts, one of the most fundamental problems in ad-hoc mobile networks that is at the core of many algorithms. Our work investigates the extreme case of total absence of any fixed network backbone or centralized administration, instantly forming networks based only on mobile hosts with wireless communication capabilities, where topological connectivity is subject to frequent, unpredictable change.
For such dynamically changing networks we propose a set of protocols which exploit the coordinated (by the protocol) motion of a small part of the network in order to manage network operations. We show that such protocols can be designed to work correctly and efficiently for communication by avoiding message flooding. Our protocols manage to establish communication between any pair of mobile hosts in small, a-priori guaranteed expected time bounds. Our results exploit and further develop some fundamental properties of random walks in finite graph.
Apart from studying the general case, we identify two practical and interesting cases of ad-hoc mobile networks: a) hierarchical ad-hoc networks, b) highly changing ad-hoc networks, for which we propose protocols that efficiently deal with the problem of basic communication.
We have conducted a set of extensive experiments, comprised of thousands of mobile hosts in order to validate the theoretical results and show that our protocols achieve very efficient communication under different scenaria.

Abstract: Evaluating target tracking protocols for wireless sensor networks that can localize multiple mobile devices, can be a very challenging task. Such protocols usually aim at minimizing communication overhead, data processing for the participating nodes, as well as delivering adequate tracking information of the mobile targets in a timely manner. Simulations on such protocols are performed using theoretical models that are based on unrealistic assumptions like the unit disk graph communication model, ideal network localization and perfect distance estimations. With these assumptions taken for granted, theoretical models claim various performance milestones that cannot be achieved in realistic conditions. In this paper we design a new localization protocol, where mobile assets can be tracked passively via software agents. We address the issues that hinder its performance due to the real environment conditions and provide a deployable protocol. The implementation, integration and experimentation of this new protocol and it's optimizations, were performed using the WISEBED framework. We apply our protocol in multiple indoors wireless sensor testbeds with multiple experimental scenarios to showcase scalability and trade-offs between network properties and configurable protocol parameters. By analysis of the real world experimental output, we present results that depict a more realistic view of the target tracking problem, regarding power consumption and the quality of tracking information. Finally we also conduct some very focused simulations to assess the scalability of our protocol in very large networks and multiple mobile assets.

Abstract: In this paper, we present a Programmable Packet Processing Engine suitable for deep header processing in high-speed networking systems.
The engine, which has been – fabricated as part of a complete network processor, consists of a typical RISC-CPU, whose register
Wle has been modiWed in order to support eYcient context switching, and two simple special-purpose processing units. The engine can be
used in a number of network processing units (NPUs), as an alternative to the typical design practice of employing a large number of simple
general purpose processors, or in any other embedded system designed to process mainly network protocols. To assess the performance
of the engine, we have proWled typical networking applications and a series of experiments were carried out. Further, we have
compared the performance of our processing engine to that of two widely used NPUs and show that our proposed packet-processing
engine can run speciWc applications up to three times faster. Moreover, the engine is simpler to be fabricated, less complex in terms of
hardware complexity, while it can still be very easily programmed.

Abstract: Wireless sensor networks are comprised of a vast number of ultra-small autonomous computing, communication and sensing devices, with restricted energy and computing capabilities, that co-operate to accomplish a large sensing task. Such networks can be very useful in practice, e.g.~in the local monitoring of ambient conditions and reporting them to a control center. In this paper we propose a new lightweight, distributed group key establishment protocol suitable for such energy constrained networks. Our approach basically trade-offs complex message exchanges by performing some amount of additional local computations. The extra computations are simple for the devices to implement and are evenly distributed across the participants of the network leading to good energy balance. We evaluate the performance our protocol in comparison to existing group key establishment protocols both in simulated and real environments. The intractability of all protocols is based on the Diffie-Hellman problem and we used its elliptic curve analog in our experiments. Our findings basically indicate the feasibility of implementing our protocol in real sensor network devices and highlight the advantages and disadvantages of each approach given the available technology and the corresponding efficiency (energy, time) criteria.

Abstract: Wireless sensor networks are comprised of a vast number of ultra-small autonomous computing, communication and sensing devices, with restricted energy and computing capabilities, that co-operate to accomplish a large sensing task. Such networks can be very useful in practice, e.g.~in the local monitoring of ambient conditions and reporting them to a control center. In this paper we propose a new lightweight, distributed group key establishment protocol suitable for such energy constrained networks. Our approach basically trade-offs complex message exchanges by performing some amount of additional local computations. The extra computations are simple for the devices to implement and are evenly distributed across the participants of the network leading to good energy balance. We evaluate the performance our protocol in comparison to existing group key establishment protocols both in simulated and real environments. The intractability of all protocols is based on the Diffie-Hellman problem and we used its elliptic curve analog in our experiments. Our findings basically indicate the feasibility of implementing our protocol in real sensor network devices and highlight the advantages and disadvantages of each approach given the available technology and the corresponding efficiency (energy, time) criteria.

Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks consist of a large number of small, autonomous devices, that are able to interact with their inveronment by sensing and collaborate to fulfill their tasks, as, usually, a single node is incapable of doing so; and they use wireless communication to enable this collaboration. Each device has limited computational and energy resources, thus a basic issue in the applicastions of wireless sensor networks is the low energy consumption and hence, the maximization of the network lifetime.
The collected data is disseminated to a static control point – data sink in the network, using node to node - multi-hop data propagation. However, sensor devices consume significant amounts of energy in addition to increased implementation complexity, since a routing protocol is executed. Also, a point of failure emerges in the area near the control center where nodes relay the data from nodes that are farther away. Recently, a new approach has been developed that shifts the burden from the sensor nodes to the sink. The main idea is that the sink has significant and easily replenishable energy reserves and can move inside the area the sensor network is deployed, in order to acquire the data collected by the sensor nodes at very low energy cost. However, the need to visit all the regions of the network may result in large delivery delays.
In this work we have developed protocols that control the movement of the sink in wireless sensor networks with non-uniform deployment of the sensor nodes, in order to succeed an efficient (with respect to both energy and latency) data collection. More specifically, a graph formation phase is executed by the sink during the initialization: the network area is partitioned in equal square regions, where the sink, pauses for a certain amount of time, during the network traversal, in order to collect data.
We propose two network traversal methods, a deterministic and a random one. When the sink moves in a random manner, the selection of the next area to visit is done in a biased random manner depending on the frequency of visits of its neighbor areas. Thus, less frequently visited areas are favored. Moreover, our method locally determines the stop time needed to serve each region with respect to some global network resources, such as the initial energy reserves of the nodes and the density of the region, stopping for a greater time interval at regions with higher density, and hence more traffic load. In this way, we achieve accelerated coverage of the network as well as fairness in the service time of each region.Besides randomized mobility, we also propose an optimized deterministic trajectory without visit overlaps, including direct (one-hop) sensor-to-sink data transmissions only.
We evaluate our methods via simulation, in diverse network settings and comparatively to related state of the art solutions. Our findings demonstrate significant latency and energy consumption improvements, compared to previous research.

Abstract: Wireless sensor networks are a recently introduced category of ad hoc computer networks, which are comprised by nodes of small size and limited computing and energy resources. Such nodes are able of measuring physical properties such as temperature, humidity, etc., wireless communication between each other and in some cases interaction with their surrounding environments (through the use of electromechanical parts).
As these networks have begun to be widely available (in terms of cost and commercial hardware availability), their field of application and philosophy of use is constantly evolving. We have numerous examples of their applications, ranging from monitoring the biodiversity of a specific outdoor area to structural health monitoring of bridges, and also networks ranging from few tens of nodes to even thousands of nodes.
In this PhD thesis we investigated the following basic research lines related to wireless sensor networks:
a) their simulation,
b) the development of data propagation protocols suited to such networks and their evaluation through simulation,
c) the modelling of ``hostile'' circumstances (obstacles) during their operation and evaluation of their impact through simulation,
d) the development of a sensor network management application.
Regarding simulation, we initially placed an emphasis to issues such as the effective simulation of networks of several thousands of nodes, and in that respect we developed a network simulator (simDust), which is extendable through the addition of new data propagation protocols and visualization capabilities. This simulator was used to evaluate the performance of a number of characteristic data propagation protocols for wireless sensor networks. Furthermore, we developed a new protocol (VRTP) and evaluated its performance against other similar protocols. Our studies show that the new protocol, that uses dynamic changes of the transmission range of the network nodes, performs better in certain cases than other related protocols, especially in networks containing obstacles and in the case of non-homogeneous placement of nodes.
Moreover, we emphasized on the addition of ``realistic'' conditions to the simulation of such protocols, that have an adversarial effect on their operation. Our goal was to introduce a model for obstacles that adds little computational overhead to a simulator, and also study the effect of the inclusion of such a model on data propagation protocols that use geographic information (absolute or relative). Such protocols are relatively sensitive to dynamic topology changes and network conditions. Through our experiments, we show that the inclusion of obstacles during simulation can have a significant effect on these protocols.
Finally, regarding applications, we initially proposed an architecture (WebDust/ShareSense), for the management of such networks, that would provide basic capabilities of managing such networks and developing applications above it. Features that set it apart are the capability of managing multiple heterogeneous sensor networks, openess, the use of a peer-to-peer architecture for the interconnection of multiple sensor network. A large part of the proposed architecture was implemented, while the overall architecture was extended to also include additional visualization capabilities.

Abstract: Wireless sensor networks are comprised of a vast number of ultra-small fully autonomous computing, communication and sensing devices, with very restricted energy and computing capabilities, which co-operate to accomplish a large sensing task. Such networks can be very useful in practice in applications that require fine-grain monitoring of physical environment subjected to critical conditions (such as inaccessible terrains or disaster places). Very large numbers of sensor devices can be deployed in areas of interest and use self-organization and collaborative methods to form deeply networked environments. Features including the huge number of sensor devices involved, the severe power, computational and memory limitations, their dense deployment and frequent failures, pose new design and implementation aspects. The efficient and robust realization of such large, highly-dynamic, complex, non-conventional environments is a challenging algorithmic and technological task. In this work we consider certain important aspects of the design, deployment and operation of distributed algorithms for data propagation in wireless sensor networks and discuss some characteristic protocols, along with an evaluation of their performance.

Abstract: An ad hoc mobile network is a collection of mobile hosts, with wireless communication capabilities, forming a temporary network without the aid of any established fixed infrastructure. In such networks, topological connectivity is subject to frequent, unpredictable change. Our work focuses on networks with high rate of such changes to connectivity. For such dynamically changing networks we propose protocols which exploit the co-ordinated (by the protocol) motion of a small part of the network. We show that such protocols can be designed to work correctly and efficiently even in the case of arbitrary (but not malicious) movements of the hosts not affected by the protocol. We also propose a methodology for the analysis of the expected behavior of protocols for such networks, based on the assumption that mobile hosts (those whose motion is not guided by the protocol) conduct concurrent random walks in their motion space. In particular, our work examines the fundamental problem of communication and proposes distributed algorithms for it. We provide rigorous proofs of their correctness, and also give performance analyses by combinatorial tools. Finally, we have evaluated these protocols by experimental means.

Abstract: An ad hoc mobile network is a collection of mobile hosts, with wireless communication capabilities, forming a temporary network without the aid of any established fixed infrastructure. In such networks, topological connectivity is subject to frequent, unpredictable change. Our work focuses on networks with high rate of such changes to connectivity. For such dynamically changing networks we propose protocols which exploit the co-ordinated (by the protocol) motion of a small part of the network. We show that such protocols can be designed to work correctly and efficiently even in the case of arbitrary (but not malicious) movements of the hosts not affected by the protocol. We also propose a methodology for the analysis of the expected behavior of protocols for such networks, based on the assumption that mobile hosts (those whose motion is not guided by the protocol) conduct concurrent random walks in their motion space. In particular, our work examines the fundamental problem of communication and proposes distributed algorithms for it. We provide rigorous proofs of their correctness, and also give performance analyses by combinatorial tools. Finally, we have evaluated these protocols by experimental means.

Abstract: Smart Dust is a set of a vast number of ultra-small fully autonomous computing and communication devices, with very restricted energy and computing capabilities, that co-operate to quickly and efficiently accomplish a large sensing task. Smart Dust can be very useful in practice, i.e., in the local detection of a remote crucial event and the propagation of data reporting its realization. In this work we make an effort towards the research on smart dust from an algorithmic point of view. We first provide a simple but realistic model for smart dust and present an interesting problem, which is how to propagate efficiently information on an event detected locally. Then we present various smart dust protocols for local detection and propagation that are simple enough to be implemented on real smart dust systems, and perform, under some simplifying assumptions, a rigorous average case analysis of their efficiency and energy consumption (and their interplay). This analysis leads to concrete results showing that our protocols are very efficient and robust. We also validate the analytical results by extensive experiments.

Abstract: In this thesis we investigate the problems of data routing and data collection in wireless sensor networks characterised by intense and higly diverse mobility. We propose a set of protocols that takes exploits the motion of the sensors in order to inform the sink about the network topology. We experimentally evaluate these protocolls in a wide range of topologies, including both homogeneous and heterogeneous ones.
We also investigate random walks as simple motion strategies for mobile sinks that perform data collection from static WSN's. We propose three new random walks that improve latency compared to already known ones, as well as a new metric called Proximity Variation. This metric captures the different way each random walks traverses the network area.

Abstract: Through recent technology advances in the eld of wireless energy transmission, Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks
(WRSN) have emerged. In this new paradigm for
WSNs a mobile entity called Mobile Charger (MC) traverses
the network and replenishes the dissipated energy of sensors.
In this work we rst provide a formal denition of the charging
dispatch decision problem and prove its computational
hardness. We then investigate how to optimize the tradeo
s of several critical aspects of the charging process such
as a) the trajectory of the charger, b) the dierent charging
policies and c) the impact of the ratio of the energy
the MC may deliver to the sensors over the total available
energy in the network. In the light of these optimizations,
we then study the impact of the charging process to the
network lifetime for three characteristic underlying routing
protocols; a greedy protocol, a clustering protocol and an
energy balancing protocol. Finally, we propose a Mobile
Charging Protocol that locally adapts the circular trajectory
of the MC to the energy dissipation rate of each sub-region
of the network. We compare this protocol against several
MC trajectories for all three routing families by a detailed
experimental evaluation. The derived ndings demonstrate
signicant performance gains, both with respect to the no
charger case as well as the dierent charging alternatives; in
particular, the performance improvements include the network
lifetime, as well as connectivity, coverage and energy
balance properties.

Abstract: We investigate the problem of ecient wireless energy recharging in Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks (WRSNs). In
such networks special mobile entities (called the Mobile Chargers) traverse the network and wirelessly replenish the energy
of sensor nodes. In contrast to most current approaches, we envision methods that are distributed and use limited network
information. We propose four new protocols for ecient recharging, addressing key issues which we identify, most notably (i)
what are good coordination procedures for the Mobile Chargers and (ii) what are good trajectories for the Mobile Chargers.
Two of our protocols (
DC,DCLK
) perform distributed, limited network knowledge coordination and charging, while two others
(
CC,CCGK
) perform centralized, global network knowledge coordination and charging. As detailed simulations demonstrate,
one of our distributed protocols outperforms a known state of the art method, while its performance gets quite close to the
performance of the powerful centralized global knowledge method.

Abstract: As the Internet of Things (IOT) arises, the use of
low-end devices on a daily basis increases. The wireless nature
of communication that these devices provide raises security and
privacy issues. For protecting a user’s privacy, cryptography
offers the tool of zero knowledge proofs (ZKP). In this
paper, we study well-established ZKP protocols based on the
discrete logarithm problem and we adapt them to the Elliptic
Curve Cryptography (ECC) setting, which consists an ideal
candidate for embedded implementations. Then, we implement
the proposed protocols on Wiselib, a generic and open source
algorithmic library. For the first time, we present a thorough
evaluation of the protocols on two popular hardware platforms
equipped with low end microcontrollers (Jennic JN5139, TI
MSP430) and 802.15.4 RF transceivers, in terms of code size,
execution time, message size and energy requirements. This
work’s results can be used from developers who wish to achieve
certain levels of privacy in their applications.

Abstract: We study the problem of energy-balanced data propagation
in wireless sensor networks. The energy balance property
guarantees that the average per sensor energy dissipation
is the same for all sensors in the network, during
the entire execution of the data propagation protocol. This
property is important since it prolongs the network¢s lifetime
by avoiding early energy depletion of sensors.
We propose a new algorithm that in each step decides
whether to propagate data one-hop towards the final destination
(the sink), or to send data directly to the sink. This
randomized choice balances the (cheap) one-hop transimssions
with the direct transimissions to the sink, which are
more expensive but “bypass” the sensors lying close to the
sink. Note that, in most protocols, these close to the sink
sensors tend to be overused and die out early.
By a detailed analysis we precisely estimate the probabilities
for each propagation choice in order to guarantee
energy balance. The needed estimation can easily be performed
by current sensors using simple to obtain information.
Under some assumptions, we also derive a closed form
for these probabilities.
The fact (shown by our analysis) that direct (expensive)
transmissions to the sink are needed only rarely, shows that
our protocol, besides energy-balanced, is also energy efficient.

Abstract: We study the problem of energy-balanced data propagation in wireless sensor networks. The energy balance property guarantees that the average per sensor energy dissipation is the same for all sensors in the network, during the entire execution of the data propagation protocol. This property is important since it prolongs the network¢:s lifetime by avoiding early energy depletion of sensors.
We propose a new algorithm that in each step decides whether to propagate data one-hop towards the final destination (the sink), or to send data directly to the sink. This randomized choice balances the (cheap) one-hop transimssions with the direct transimissions to the sink, which are more expensive but “bypass” the sensors lying close to the sink. Note that, in most protocols, these close to the sink sensors tend to be overused and die out early.
By a detailed analysis we precisely estimate the probabilities for each propagation choice in order to guarantee energy balance. The needed estimation can easily be performed by current sensors using simple to obtain information. Under some assumptions, we also derive a closed form for these probabilities.
The fact (shown by our analysis) that direct (expensive) transmissions to the sink are needed only rarely, shows that our protocol, besides energy-balanced, is also energy efficient.

Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks are comprised of a vast number of ultra-small, autonomous computing and communication devices, with restricted energy, that co-operate to accomplish a large sensing task. In this work: a) We propose extended versions of two data propagation protocols for such networks: the Sleep-Awake Probabilistic Forwarding Protocol (SW-PFR) and the Hierarchical Threshold sensitive Energy Efficient Network protocol (H-TEEN). These non-trivial extensions improve the performance of the original protocols, by introducing sleep-awake periods in the PFR protocol to save energy, and introducing a hierarchy of clustering in the TEEN protocol to better cope with large networks, b) We implemented the two protocols and performed an extensive simulation comparison of various important measures of their performance with a focus on energy consumption, c) We investigate in detail the relative advantages and disadvantages of each protocol, d) We discuss a possible hybrid combination of the two protocols towards optimizing certain goals.

Abstract: In this paper, we demonstrate the significant impact of (a) the mobility rate and (b) the user density on the performance of routing protocols in ad-hoc mobile networks. In particular, we study the effect of these parameters on two different approaches for designing routing protocols: (a) the route creation and maintenance approach and (b) the support approach that forces few hosts to move, acting as helpers for message delivery. We study one representative protocol for each approach, i.e. AODV for the first approach and RUNNERS for the second. We have implemented the two protocols and performed a large scale and detailed simulation study of their performance. The main findings are: the AODV protocol behaves well in networks of high user density and low mobility rate, while its performance drops for sparse networks of highly mobile users. On the other hand, the RUNNERS protocol seems to tolerate well (and in fact benefit from) high mobility rates and low densities.

Abstract: We present key aspects (hardware, software, topology, networking) of SenseWall, an experimental sensor network test-bed we have created for the implementation and engineering of distributed sensor network algorithms. We then describe how SenseWall has been in particular used to implement two recent state of the art algorithms for energy balanced sensor data propagation. We elaborate on the issues and challenges created by the restrictions and particularities of the experimental test-bed and how we dealt with them. We also carry out a detailed performance evaluation comparing the energy balance protocols to two baseline protocols that include only either single hop or direct data transmissions.

Abstract: We investigate the efficiency of protocols for basic communication in ad-hoc mobile networks. All protocols are classified in the semi-compulsory, relay category according to which communication is achieved through a small team of mobile hosts, called the support, which move in a predetermined way and serves as an intermediate pool for receiving and delivering messages. We implement a new semi-compulsory, relay protocol in which the motion of the support is based on a so-called ``hunter" strategy developed for a pursuit-evasion game. We conduct an extensive, comparative experimental study of this protocol with other two existing protocols, each one possessing a different motion for its support. We considered several types of inputs, including among others two kinds of motion patterns (random and adversarial) for the mobile hosts not in the support. Our experiments showed that for all protocols the throughput scales almost linearly with the number of mobile hosts in the network, and that a small support size suffices for efficient communication. An interesting outcome is that in most cases the new protocol is inferior to the other two, although it has a global knowledge of the motion space.

Abstract: We investigate the impact of multiple, mobile sinks on
efficient data collection in wireless sensor networks. To
improve performance, our protocol design focuses on minimizing
overlaps of sink trajectories and balancing the service load
among the sinks. To cope with high network dynamics, placement
irregularities and limited network knowledge we propose three different
protocols: a) a centralized one, that explicitly equalizes spatial coverage;
this protocol assumes strong modeling assumptions, and also serves as a kind
of performance lower bound in uniform networks of low dynamics b)
a distributed protocol based on mutual avoidance of sinks c) a clustering
protocol that distributively groups service areas towards balancing the load per sink.
Our simulation findings demonstrate significant gains in latency, while keeping the success
rate and the energy dissipation at very satisfactory levels even under
high network dynamics and deployment heterogeneity.

Abstract: We consider the following distributed optimization problem: three agents i =
1; 2; 3 are each presented with a load drawn independently from the same known prior distribution.
Then each agent decides on which of two available bins to put her load. Each bin has
capacity �, and the objective is to find a distributed protocol that minimizes the probability
that an overflow occurs (or, equivalently, maximizes the winning probability).
In this work, we focus on the cases of full information and local information, depending on
whether each agent knows the loads of both other agents or not. Furthermore, we distinguish
between the cases where the agents are allowed to follow different decision rules (eponymous
model) or not (anonymous model ). We assume no communication among agents.
First, we present optimal protocols for the full information case, for both the anonymous and
the eponymous model.
For the local information, anonymous case, we show that the winning probability is upper
bounded by 0.622 in the case where the input loads are drawn from the uniform distribution.
Motivated by [3], we present a general method for computing the optimal single-threshold protocol
for any continuous distribution, and we apply this method to the case of the exponential
distribution.
Finally, we show how to compute, in exponential time, an optimal protocol for the local
information, eponymous model for the case where the input loads are drawn from a discretevalued,
bounded distribution.

Abstract: Geographic routing is becoming the protocol of choice for many sensor network applications. Some very efficient geographic routing algorithms exist, however they require a preliminary planarization of the communication graph. Planarization induces overhead which makes this approach not optimal when lightweight protocols are required. On the other hand, georouting algorithms which do not rely on planarization have fairly low success rates and either fail to route messages around all but the simplest obstacles or have a high topology control overhead (e.g. contour detection algorithms). In this entry we describe the GRIC algorithm which was designed to overcome some of those limitations. The GRIC algorithm was proposed in [PN07a]. It is the first lightweight and efficient on demand (i.e. all-to-all) geographic routing algorithm which does not require planarization, has almost 100% delivery rates (when no obstacles are added), and behaves well in the presence of large communication blocking obstacles.

Abstract: In this work we discuss Fun in Numbers, a software platform for implementing multiplayer games and interactive installations, that are based on the use of ad hoc mobile sensing devices. We utilize a detailed log of a three-day long public showcase as a basis to discuss the implementation issues related to a set of games and installations, which are examples of this unique category of applications, utilizing a blend of technologies. We discuss their fundamental concepts and features, also arguing that they have many aspects and potential uses. The architecture of the platform and implementation details are highlighted in this work, along with detailed descriptions of the protocols used. Our experiments shed light on a number of key issues, such as network scaling and real-time performance, and we provide experiments regarding cross-layer software issues. We additionally provide data showing that such games and installations can be efficiently supported by our platform, with as many as 50 concurrent players in the same physical space. These results are backed up by a user evaluation study from a large sample of 136 visitors, which shows that such applications can be seriously fun.

Abstract: We propose efficient schemes for information-theoretically secure
key exchange in the Bounded Storage Model (BSM), where the adversary
is assumed to have limited storage. Our schemes generate a
secret One Time Pad (OTP) shared by the sender and the receiver,
from a large number of public random bits produced by the sender
or by an external source. Our schemes initially generate a small
number of shared secret bits, using known techniques. We introduce
a new method to expand a small number of shared bits to a
much longer, shared key.
Our schemes are tailored to the requirements of sensor nodes
and wireless networks. They are simple, efficient to implement and
take advantage of the fact that practical wireless protocols transmit
data in frames, unlike previous protocols, which assume access to
specific bits in a stream of data. Indeed, our main contribution is
twofold.
On the one hand, we construct schemes that are attractive in
terms of simplicity, computational complexity, number of bits read
from the shared random source and expansion factor of the initial
key to the final shared key.
On the other hand, we show how to transformany existing scheme
for key exchange in BSM into a more efficient scheme in the number
of bits it reads from the shared source, given that the source is
transmitted in frames.

Abstract: In this work, we study the impact of the dynamic changing of the network link capacities on the stability properties of packet-switched networks. Especially, we consider the Adversarial, Quasi-Static Queuing Theory model, where each link capacity may take on only two possible (integer) values, namely 1 and C>1 under a (w,\~{n})-adversary. We obtain the following results:
• Allowing such dynamic changes to the link capacities of a network with just ten nodes that uses the LIS (Longest-in-System) protocol for contention–resolution results in instability at rates View the MathML source and for large enough values of C.
• The combination of dynamically changing link capacities with compositions of contention–resolution protocols on network queues suffices for similar instability bounds: The composition of LIS with any of SIS (Shortest-in-System), NTS (Nearest-to-Source), and FTG (Furthest-to-Go) protocols is unstable at rates View the MathML source for large enough values of C.
• The instability bound of the network subgraphs that are forbidden for stability is affected by the dynamic changes to the link capacities: we present improved instability bounds for all the directed subgraphs that were known to be forbidden for stability on networks running a certain greedy protocol.

Abstract: Wireless sensor networks can be very useful in applications that require the detection of crucial events, in physical environments subjected to critical conditions, and the propagation of data reporting their realization to a control center. In this paper we propose jWebDust, a generic and modular application environment for developing and managing applications that are based on wireless sensor networks. Our software architecture provides a range of services that allow to create customized applications with minimum implementation effort that are easy to administrate. We move beyond the ?networking-centric? view of sensor network research and focus on how the end user (administrator, control center supervisor, etc.) will visualize and interact with the system.
We here present its open architecture, the most important design decisions, and discuss its distinct features and functionalities. jWebDust allows heterogeneous components to interoperate (real world sensor networks will rarely be homogeneous) and allows the integrated management and control of multiple such networks by also defining web-based mechanisms to visualize the network state, the results of queries, and a means to inject queries in the network. The architecture also illustrates how existing protocols for various services can interoperate in a bigger framework - such as the tree construction, query routing, etc.

Abstract: In this book chapter we will consider key establishment protocols for wireless sensor networks.
Several protocols have been proposed in the literature for the establishment of a shared group key for wired networks.
The choice of a protocol depends whether the key is established by one of the participants (and then transported to the other(s)) or agreed among the participants, and on the underlying cryptographic mechanisms (symmetric or asymmetric). Clearly, the design of key establishment protocols for sensor networks must deal with different problems and challenges that do not exist in wired networks. To name a few, wireless links are particularly vulnerable to eavesdropping, and that sensor devices can be captured (and the secrets they contain can be compromised); in many upcoming wireless sensor networks, nodes cannot rely on the presence of an online trusted server (whereas most standardized authentication and key establishment protocols do rely on such a server).
In particular, we will consider five distributed group key establishment protocols. Each of these protocols applies a different algorithmic technique that makes it more suitable for (i) static sensor networks, (ii) sensor networks where nodes enter sleep mode (i.e. dynamic, with low rate of updates on the connectivity graph) and (iii) fully dynamic networks where nodes may even be mobile. On the other hand, the common factor for all five protocols is that they can be applied in dynamic groups (where members can be excluded or added) and provide forward and backward secrecy. All these protocols are based on the Diffie-Hellman key exchange algorithm and constitute natural extensions of it in the multiparty case.

Abstract: We extend here the Population Protocol model of Angluin et al. [2004] in order to model more powerful networks of very small resource-limited artefacts (agents) that are possibly mobile. Communication can happen only between pairs of artefacts. A communication graph (or digraph) denotes the permissible pairwise interactions. The main feature of our extended model is to allow edges of the communication graph, G, to have states that belong to a constant size set. We also allow edges to have readable only costs, whose values also belong to a constant size set. We then allow the protocol rules for pairwise interactions to modify the corresponding edge state. Thus, our protocol specifications are still independent of the population size and do not use agent ids, i.e. they preserve scalability, uniformity and anonymity. Our Mediated Population Protocols (MPP) can stably compute graph properties of the communication graph. We show this for the properties of maximal matchings (in undirected communication graphs), also for finding the transitive closure of directed graphs and for finding all edges of small cost. We demonstrate that our mediated protocols are stronger than the classical population protocols, by presenting a mediated protocol that stably computes the product of two positive integers, when G is the complete graph. This is not a semilinear predicate. To show this fact, we state and prove a general Theorem about the Composition of two stably computing mediated population protocols. We also show that all predicates stably computable in our model are (non-uniformly) in the class NSPACE(m), where m is the number of edges of the communication graph. We also define Randomized MPP and show that, any Peano predicate accepted by a MPP, can be verified in deterministic Polynomial Time.

Abstract: In this work, we propose an obstacle model to be used while simulating wireless sensor networks. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time such an integrated and systematic obstacle model appears. We define several types of obstacles that can be found inside the deployment area of a wireless sensor network and provide a categorization of these obstacles, based on their nature (physical and communication obstacles), their shape, as well as
their nature to change over time. In light of this obstacle model we conduct extensive simulations in order to study the effects of obstacles on the performance of representative data propagation protocols for wireless sensor networks. Our findings
show that obstacle presence has a significant impact on protocol performance. Also, we demonstrate the effect of each obstacle type on different protocols, thus providing the network designer with advice on which protocol is best to use.

Abstract: Recent rapid developments in micro-electro-mechanical systems
(MEMS), wireless communications and digital electronics have already
led to the development of tiny, low-power, low-cost sensor devices.
Such devices integrate sensing, limited data processing and restricted
communication capabilities.
Each sensor device individually might have small utility, however the
effective distributed co-ordination of large numbers of such devices can
lead to the efficient accomplishment of large sensing tasks. Large numbers
of sensors can be deployed in areas of interest (such as inaccessible
terrains or disaster places) and use self-organization and collaborative
methods to form an ad-hoc network.
We note however that the efficient and robust realization of such large,
highly-dynamic, complex, non-conventional networking environments is
a challenging technological and algorithmic task, because of the unique
characteristics and severe limitations of these devices.
This talk will present and discuss several important aspects of the
design, deployment and operation of sensor networks. In particular, we
provide a brief description of the technical specifications of state-of-theart
sensor, a discussion of possible models used to abstract such networks,
a discussion of some key algorithmic design techniques (like randomization,
adaptation and hybrid schemes), a presentation of representative
protocols for sensor networks, for important problems including data
propagation, collision avoidance and energy balance and an evaluation
of crucial performance properties (correctness, efficiency, fault-tolerance)
of these protocols, both with analytic and simulation means.

Abstract: Let n atomic players be routing their unsplitable flow on mresources.
When each player has the option to drop her current resource and select a better
one, and this option is exercised sequentially and unilaterally, then a Nash Equilibrium
(NE) will be eventually reached. Acting sequentially, however, is unrealistic
in large systems. But, allowing concurrency, with an arbitrary number of
players updating their resources at each time point, leads to an oscillation away
from NE, due to big groups of players moving simultaneously and due to nonsmooth
resource cost functions. In this work, we validate experimentally simple
concurrent protocols that are realistic, distributed and myopic yet are scalable, require
only information local at each resource and, still, are experimentally shown
to quickly reach a NE for a range of arbitrary cost functions.

Abstract: Geographic routing scales well in sensor networks, mainly
due to its stateless nature. Still, most of the algorithms are
concerned with finding some path, while the optimality of
the path is difficult to achieve. In this paper we are presenting
a novel geographic routing algorithm with obstacle
avoidance properties. It aims at finding the optimal path
from a source to a destination when some areas of the network
are unavailable for routing due to low local density or
obstacle presence. It locally and gradually with time (but,
as we show, quite fast) evaluates and updates the suitability
of the previously used paths and ignores non optimal paths
for further routing. By means of extensive simulations, we
are comparing its performance to existing state of the art
protocols, showing that it performs much better in terms of
path length thus minimizing latency, space, overall traffic
and energy consumption.

Abstract: We propose new burst assembly schemes and fast reservation (FR) protocols for Optical Burst Switched (OBS) networks that are based on traffic prediction. The burst assembly schemes aim at minimizing (for a given burst size) the average delay of the packets incurred during the burst assembly process, while the fast reservation protocols aim at further reducing the end-to-end delay of the data bursts. The burst assembly techniques use a linear prediction filter to estimate the number of packet arrivals at the ingress node in the following interval, and launch a new burst into the network when a certain criterion, different for each proposed scheme, is met. The fast reservation protocols use prediction filters to estimate the expected length of the burst and the time needed for the burst assembly process to complete. A Burst Header Packet (BHP) packet carrying these estimates is sent before the burst is completed, in order to reserve bandwidth at intermediate nodes for the time interval the burst is expected to pass from these nodes. Reducing the packet aggregation delay and the time required to perform the reservations, reduces the total time needed for a packet to be transported over an OBS network and is especially important for real-time applications. We evaluate the performance of the proposed burst assembly schemes and show that a number of them outperform the previously proposed timer-based, length-based and average delay-based burst assembly schemes. We also look at the performance of the fast reservation (FR) protocols in terms of the probability of successfully establishing the reservations required to transport the burst.

Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) constitute a recent and promising new
technology that is widely applicable. Due to the applicability of this
technology and its obvious importance for the modern distributed
computational world, the formal scientific foundation of its inherent laws
becomes essential. As a result, many new computational models for WSNs
have been proposed. Population Protocols (PPs) are a special category of
such systems. These are mainly identified by three distinctive
characteristics: the sensor nodes (agents) move passively, that is, they
cannot control the underlying mobility pattern, the available memory to
each agent is restricted, and the agents interact in pairs. It has been
proven that a predicate is computable by the PP model iff it is
semilinear. The class of semilinear predicates is a fairly small class. In
this work, our basic goal is to enhance the PP model in order to improve
the computational power. We first make the assumption that not only the
nodes but also the edges of the communication graph can store restricted
states. In a complete graph of n nodes it is like having added O(n2)
additional memory cells which are only read and written by the endpoints
of the corresponding edge. We prove that the new model, called Mediated
Population Protocol model, can operate as a distributed nondeterministic
Turing machine (TM) that uses all the available memory. The only
difference from a usual TM is that this one computes only symmetric
languages. More formally, we establish that a predicate is computable by
the new model iff it is symmetric and belongs to NSPACE(n2). Moreover, we
study the ability of the new model to decide graph languages (for general
graphs). The next step is to ignore the states of the edges and provide
another enhancement straight away from the PP model. The assumption now is
that the agents are multitape TMs equipped with infinite memory, that can
perform internal computation and interact with other agents, and we define
space-bounded computations. We call this the Passively mobile Machines
model. We prove that if each agent uses at most f(n) memory for f(n)={\`U}(log
n) then a predicate is computable iff it is symmetric and belongs to
NSPACE(nf(n)). We also show that this is not the case for f(n)=o(log n).
Based on these, we show that for f(n)={\`U}(log n) there exists a space
hierarchy like the one for classical symmetric TMs. We also show that the
latter is not the case for f(n)=o(loglog n), since here the corresponding
class collapses in the class of semilinear predicates and finally that for
f(n)={\`U}(loglog n) the class becomes a proper superset of semilinear
predicates. We leave open the problem of characterizing the classes for
f(n)={\`U}(loglog n) and f(n)=o(log n).

Abstract: We propose a novel, generic definition of probabilistic schedulers for population protocols. We then identify the consistent probabilistic schedulers, and prove that any consistent scheduler that assigns a non-zero probability to any transition i->j, where i and j are configurations satisfying that i is not equal to j, is fair with probability 1. This is a new theoretical framework that aims to simplify proving specific probabilistic schedulers fair. In this paper we propose two new schedulers, the State Scheduler and the Transition Function Scheduler. Both possess the significant capability of being protocol-aware, i.e. they can assign transition probabilities based on information concerning the underlying protocol. By using our framework we prove that the proposed schedulers, and also the Random Scheduler that was defined by Angluin et al., are all fair with probability 1. We also define and study equivalence between schedulers w.r.t. performance (time equivalent schedulers) and correctness (computationally equivalent schedulers). Surprisingly, we prove the following.
1. The protocol-oblivious (or agnostic) Random Scheduler is not time equivalent to the State and Transition Function Schedulers, although all three are fair probabilistic schedulers (with probability 1). To prove the statement we study the performance of the One-Way Epidemic Protocol (OR Protocol) under these schedulers. To illustrate the unexpected performance variations of protocols under different fair probabilistic schedulers, we additionally modify the State Scheduler to obtain a fair probabilistic scheduler, called the Modified Scheduler, that may be adjusted to lead the One-Way Epidemic Protocol to arbitrarily bad performance.
2. The Random Scheduler is not computationally equivalent to the Transition Function Scheduler. To prove the statement we study the Majority Protocol w.r.t. correctness under the Transition Function Scheduler. It turns out that the minority may win with constant probability under the same initial margin for which the majority w.h.p. wins under the Random Scheduler (as proven by Angluin et al.).

Abstract: An ad-hoc mobile network is a collection of mobile hosts, with
wireless communication capabilities, forming a temporary network
without the aid of any established fixed infrastructure.
In such networks, topological connectivity is subject to frequent,
unpredictable change. Our work focuses on networks with high
rate of such changes to connectivity. For such dynamic changing
networks we propose protocols which exploit the co-ordinated
(by the protocol) motion of a small part of the network.
We show that such protocols can be designed to work
correctly and efficiently even in the case of arbitrary (but not
malicious) movements of the hosts not affected by the protocol.
We also propose a methodology for the analysis of the expected
behaviour of protocols for such networks, based on the assumption that mobile hosts (whose motion is not guided by
the protocol) conduct concurrent random walks in their
motion space.
Our work examines some fundamental problems such as pair-wise
communication, election of a leader and counting, and proposes
distributed algorithms for each of them. We provide their
proofs of correctness, and also give rigorous analysis by
combinatorial tools and also via experiments.

Abstract: In this paper we demonstrate the significant impact of (a) the mobility rate and (b) the user density on the performance of routing protocols in ad-hoc mobile networks. In particular, we study the effect of these parameters on two different approaches for designing routing protocols: (a) the route creation and maintenance approach and (b) the "support" approach, that forces few hosts to move acting as "helpers" for message delivery. We study one representative protocol for each approach, i.e., AODV for the first approach and RUNNERS for the second. We have implemented the two protocols and performed a large scale and detailed simulation study of their performance. For the first time, we study AODV (and RUNNERS) in the 3D case. The main findings are: the AODV protocol behaves well in networks of high user density and low mobility rate, while its performance drops for sparse networks of highly mobile users. On the other hand, the RUNNERS protocol seems to tolerate well (and in fact benefit from) high mobility rates and low densities. Thus, we are able to partially answer an important conjecture of [Chatzigiannakis, I et al. 2003].

Abstract: We propose a new theoretical model for passively mobile Wireless Sensor Networks, called PM, standing for Passively mobile Machines. The main modification w.r.t. the Population Protocol model [Angluin et al. 2006] is that agents now, instead of being automata, are Turing Machines. We provide general definitions for unbounded memories, but we are mainly interested in computations upper-bounded by plausible space limitations. However, we prove that our results hold for more general cases. We focus on \emph{complete interaction graphs} and define the complexity classes PMSPACE(f(n)) parametrically, consisting of all predicates that are stably computable by some PM protocol that uses O(f(n)) memory in each agent. We provide a protocol that generates unique identifiers from scratch only by using O(log n) memory, and use it to provide an exact characterization of the classes PMSPACE(f(n)) when f(n) = Ω(log n): they are precisely the classes of all symmetric predicates in NSPACE(nf(n)). As a consequence, we obtain a space hierarchy of the PM model when the memory bounds are Ω(log n). We next explore the computability of the PM model when the protocols use o(loglog n) space per machine and prove that SEM = PMSPACE(f(n)) when f(n) = o(loglog n), where SEM denotes the class of the semilinear predicates. Finally, we establish that the minimal space requirement for the computation of non-semilinear predicates is O(log log n).

Abstract: In this work, we study the impact of dynamically changing
link capacities on the delay bounds of LIS (Longest-In-
System) and SIS (Shortest-In-System) protocols on specific
networks (that can be modelled as Directed Acyclic Graphs-
DAGs) and stability bounds of greedy contention-resolution
protocols running on arbitrary networks under the Adversarial
Queueing Theory. Especially, we consider the model
of dynamic capacities, where each link capacity may take
on integer values from [1, C] withC > 1, under a (w, \~{n})-
adversary.

Abstract: In this work, we study the impact of dynamically changing link capacities on the delay bounds of LIS (Longest-In-System) and SIS (Shortest-In-System) protocols on specific networks (that can be modelled as Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs)) and stability bounds of greedy contention–resolution protocols running on arbitrary networks under the Adversarial Queueing Theory. Especially, we consider the model of dynamic capacities, where each link capacity may take on integer values from [1,C] with C>1, under a (w,\~{n})-adversary. We show that the packet delay on DAGs for LIS is upper bounded by O(iw\~{n}C) and lower bounded by {\`U}(iw\~{n}C) where i is the level of a node in a DAG (the length of the longest path leading to node v when nodes are ordered by the topological order induced by the graph). In a similar way, we show that the performance of SIS on DAGs is lower bounded by {\`U}(iw\~{n}C), while the existence of a polynomial upper bound for packet delay on DAGs when SIS is used for contention–resolution remains an open problem. We prove that every queueing network running a greedy contention–resolution protocol is stable for a rate not exceeding a particular stability threshold, depending on C and the length of the longest path in the network.

Abstract: In this work we extend the population protocol model of Angluin et al., in
order to model more powerful networks of very small resource limited
artefacts (agents) that is possible to follow some unpredictable passive
movement. These agents communicate in pairs according to the commands of
an adversary scheduler. A directed (or undirected) communication graph
encodes the following information: each edge (u,\~{o}) denotes that during the
computation it is possible for an interaction between u and \~{o} to happen in
which u is the initiator and \~{o} the responder. The new characteristic of
the proposed mediated population protocol model is the existance of a
passive communication provider that we call mediator. The mediator is a
simple database with communication capabilities. Its main purpose is to
maintain the permissible interactions in communication classes, whose
number is constant and independent of the population size. For this reason
we assume that each agent has a unique identifier for whose existence the
agent itself is not informed and thus cannot store it in its working
memory. When two agents are about to interact they send their ids to the
mediator. The mediator searches for that ordered pair in its database and
if it exists in some communication class it sends back to the agents the
state corresponding to that class. If this interaction is not permitted to
the agents, or, in other words, if this specific pair does not exist in
the database, the agents are informed to abord the interaction. Note that
in this manner for the first time we obtain some control on the safety of
the network and moreover the mediator provides us at any time with the
network topology. Equivalently, we can model the mediator by communication
links that are capable of keeping states from a edge state set of constant
cardinality. This alternative way of thinking of the new model has many
advantages concerning the formal modeling and the design of protocols,
since it enables us to abstract away the implementation details of the
mediator. Moreover, we extend further the new model by allowing the edges
to keep readable only costs, whose values also belong to a constant size
set. We then allow the protocol rules for pairwise interactions to modify
the corresponding edge state by also taking into account the costs. Thus,
our protocol descriptions are still independent of the population size and
do not use agent ids, i.e. they preserve scalability, uniformity and
anonymity. The proposed Mediated Population Protocols (MPP) can stably
compute graph properties of the communication graph. We show this for the
properties of maximal matchings (in undirected communication graphs), also
for finding the transitive closure of directed graphs and for finding all
edges of small cost. We demonstrate that our mediated protocols are
stronger than the classical population protocols. First of all we notice
an obvious fact: the classical model is a special case of the new model,
that is, the new model can compute at least the same things with the
classical one. We then present a mediated protocol that stably computes
the product of two nonnegative integers in the case where G is complete
directed and connected. Such kind of predicates are not semilinear and it
has been proven that classical population protocols in complete graphs can
compute precisely the semilinear predicates, thus in this manner we show
that there is at least one predicate that our model computes and which the
classical model cannot compute. To show this fact, we state and prove a
general Theorem about the composition of two mediated population
protocols, where the first one has stabilizing inputs. We also show that
all predicates stably computable in our model are (non-uniformly) in the
class NSPACE(m), where m is the number of edges of the communication
graph. Finally, we define Randomized MPP and show that, any Peano
predicate accepted by a Randomized MPP, can be verified in deterministic
polynomial time.

Abstract: This is a joint work with Ioannis Chatzigiannakis and Othon Michail.
We discuss here the population protocol model and most of its well-known extensions. The population protocol model aims to represent sensor networks consisting of tiny computational devices with sensing capabilities that follow some unpredictable and uncontrollable mobility pattern. It adopts a minimalistic approach and, thus, naturally computes a quite restricted class of predicates and exhibits almost no fault-tolerance. Most recent approaches make extra realistic and implementable assumptions, in order to gain more computational power and/or speed-up the time to convergence and/or improve fault-tolerance. In particular, the mediated population protocol model, the community protocol model, and the PALOMA model, which are all extensions of the population protocol model, are thoroughly discussed. Finally, the inherent difficulty of verifying the correctness of population protocols that run on complete communication graphs is revealed, but a promising algorithmic solution is presented.

Abstract: With a rapidly aging population, the health-care community will
soon face a severe medical personnel shortage. It is imperative that automated
health monitoring technologies be developed to help meet this
shortage. In this direction, we are developing Ayushman, a health monitoring
infrastructure and testbed. The vision behind its development
is two-fold: first, to develop a wireless sensor-based automated health
monitoring system that can be used in diverse situations, from homebased
care, to disaster situations, without much customization; second,
to provide a testbed for implementing and testing communication protocols
and systems. Ayushman provides a collection of services which
enables it to perform this dual role. It possess a hierarchical cluster
topology which provides a fault-tolerant and reliable system by ensuring
that each tier in the hierarchy is self-contained and can survive on its
own in case of network partition. Ayushman is being implemented using
off-the-shelf and diverse hardware and software components, which
presents many challenges in system integration and operational reliability.
This is an ongoing project at the IMPACT lab at Arizona State
University1, and in this paper, we present our system¢s architecture and
some of our experiences in the development of its initial prototype.

Abstract: We propose, implement and evaluate new energy conservation schemes for efficient data propagation in wireless sensor networks. Our protocols are adaptive, i.e. locally monitor the network conditions and accordingly adjust towards optimal operation choices. This dynamic feature is particularly beneficial in heterogeneous settings and in cases of redeployment of sensor devices in the network area. We implement our protocols and evaluate their performance through a detailed simulation study using our extended version of ns-2. In particular we combine our schemes with known communication paradigms. The simulation findings demonstrate significant gains and good trade-offs in terms of delivery success, delay and energy dissipation.

Abstract: Recent rapid technological developments have led to the
development of tiny, low-power, low-cost sensors. Such devices
integrate sensing, limited data processing and communication
capabilities.The effective distributed collaboration
of large numbers of such devices can lead to the efficient
accomplishment of large sensing tasks.
This talk focuses on several aspects of energy efficiency.
Two protocols for data propagation are studied: the first
creates probabilistically optimized redundant data transmissions
to combine energy efficiency with fault tolerance,
while the second guarantees (in a probabilistic way) the
same per sensor energy dissipation, towards balancing the
energy load and prolong the lifetime of the network.
A third protocol (in fact a power saving scheme) is also
presented, that directly and adaptively affects power dissipation
at each sensor. This “lower level” scheme can be
combined with data propagation protocols to further improve
energy efficiency.

Abstract: Wireless sensor networks are composed of a vast number of ultra-small, fully autonomous computing, communication, and sensing devices, with very restricted energy and computing capabilities, that cooperate to accomplish a large sensing task. Such networks can be very useful in practice. The authors propose extended versions of two data propagation protocols: the Sleep-Awake Probabilistic Forwarding (SW-PFR) protocol and the Hierarchical Threshold-Sensitive Energy-Efficient Network (H-TEEN) protocol. These nontrivial extensions aim at improving the performance of the original protocols by introducing sleep-awake periods in the PFR case to save energy and introducing a hierarchy of clustering in the TEEN case to better cope with large network areas. The authors implemented the two protocols and performed an extensive comparison via simulation of various important measures of their performance with a focus on energy consumption. Data propagation under this approach exhibits high fault tolerance and increases network lifetime.

Abstract: Wireless sensor networks are composed of a vast number of ultra-small, fully autonomous computing, communication, and sensing devices, with very restricted energy and computing capabilities, that cooperate to accomplish a large sensing task. Such networks can be very useful in practice. The authors propose extended versions of two data propagation protocols: the Sleep-Awake Probabilistic Forwarding (SW-PFR) protocol and the Hierarchical Threshold-Sensitive Energy-Efficient Network (H-TEEN) protocol. These nontrivial extensions aim at improving the performance of the original protocols by introducing sleep-awake periods in the PFR case to save energy and introducing a hierarchy of clustering in the TEEN case to better cope with large network areas. The authors implemented the two protocols and performed an extensive comparison via simulation of various important measures of their performance with a focus on energy consumption. Data propagation under this approach exhibits high fault tolerance and increases network lifetime.

Abstract: In this work we focus on the energy efficiency challenge in wireless sensor networks, from both an on-line perspective (related to routing), as well as a network design perspective (related to tracking). We investigate a few representative, important aspects of energy efficiency: a) the robust and fast data propagation b) the problem of balancing the energy
dissipation among all sensors in the network and c) the problem of efficiently tracking moving
entities in sensor networks. Our work here is a methodological survey of selected results that
have alre dy appeared in the related literature.
In particular, we investigate important issues of energy optimization, like minimizing the total
energy dissipation, minimizing the number of transmissions as well as balancing the energy
load to prolong the system¢s lifetime. We review characteristic protocols and techniques in the recent literature, including probabilistic forwarding and local optimization methods. We study the problem of localizing and tracking multiple moving targets from a network design perspective i.e. towards estimating the least possible number of sensors, their positions and operation characteristics needed to efficiently perform the tracking task. To avoid an expensive massive deployment, we try to take advantage of possible coverage overlaps over space and time, by introducing a novel combinatorial model that captures such overlaps. Under this model, we abstract the tracking network design problem by a covering combinatorial problem and then design and analyze an efficient approximate method for sensor placement
and operation.

Abstract: In this work we present three new distributed, probabilistic data propagation protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks which aim at maximizing the network's operational life and improve its performance. The keystone of these protocols' design is fairness which declares that fair portions of network's work load should be assigned to each node, depending on their role in the system. All the three protocols, EFPFR, MPFR and TWIST, emerged from the study of the rigorously analyzed protocol PFR. Its design elements were identified and improvements were suggested and incorporated into the introduced protocols. The experiments conducted show that our proposals manage to improve PFR's performance in terms of success rate, total amount of energy saved, number of alive sensors and standard deviation of the energy left. Indicatively we note that while PFR's success rate is 69.5%, TWIST is achieving 97.5% and its standard deviation of energy is almost half of that of PFR.

Abstract: The population protocol model (PP) proposed by Angluin et al. [2] describes sensor networks consisting of passively mobile finite-state agents. The agents sense their environment and communicate in pairs to carry out some computation on the sensed values. The mediated population protocol model (MPP) [13] extended the PP model by communication links equipped with a constant size buffer. The MPP model was proved in [13] to be stronger than the PP model. However, its most important contribution is that it provides us with the ability to devise optimizing protocols, approximation protocols and protocols that decide properties of the communication graph on which they run. The latter case, suggests a simplified model, the GDM model, that was formally defined and studied in [11]. GDM is a special case of MPP that captures MPP's ability to decide properties of the communication graph. Here we survey recent advances in the area initiated by the proposal of the PP model and at the same time we provide new protocols, novel ideas and results.

Abstract: In this paper we present a signaling protocol for
QoS differentiation suitable for optical burst switching networks.
The proposed protocol is a two-way reservation scheme that
employs delayed and in-advance reservation of resources. In this
scheme delayed reservations may be relaxed, introducing a
reservation duration parameter that is negotiated during call
setup phase. This feature allows bursts to reserve resources
beyond their actual size to increase their successful forwarding
probability and is used to provide QoS differentiation. The
proposed signaling protocol offers a low blocking probability for
bursts that can tolerate the round-trip delay required for the
reservations. We present the main features of the protocol and
describe in detail timing considerations regarding the call setup
and the reservation process. We also describe several methods
for choosing the protocol parameters so as to optimize
performance and present corresponding evaluation results.
Furthermore, we compare the performance of the proposed
protocol against that of two other typical reservation protocols, a
Tell-and-Wait and a Tell-and-Go protocol.

Abstract: In this paper we demonstrate the significant impact of the user mobility rates on the performance on two different approaches for designing routing protocols for ad-hoc mobile networks: (a) the route creation and maintenance approach and (b) the "support" approach, that forces few hosts to move acting as
"helpers" for message delivery. We study a set of representative protocols for each approach, i.e.~DSR and ZRP for the first approach and RUNNERS for the second. We have implemented the three protocols and performed a large scale and detailed simulation study of their performance. Our findings are: (i) DSR achieves low message delivery rates but manages to deliver messages very fast; (ii) ZRP behaves well in networks of low mobility rate, while its performance drops for networks of highly mobile users; (iii) RUNNERS seem to tolerate well (and in fact benefit from) high mobility rates.
Based on our investigation, we design and implement two new protocols that result from the synthesis of the investigated routing approaches. We conducted an extensive, comparative simulation study of their performance. The new protocols behave well both in networks of diverse mobility motion rates, and in some cases they even outperform the original ones by achieving lower message delivery delays.

Abstract: Data propagation in wireless sensor
networks is usually performed as a multihop process.
Thus,
To deliver a single
message, the resources of many sensor nodes are used and
a lot of energy is spent.
Recently, a novel approach is catching momentum because of important applications;
that of having a mobile sink move inside the network area and collect
the data with low energy cost.
Here we extend this line of research by proposing and evaluating three new protocols.
Our protocols are novel in
a) investigating the impact of having {many} mobile sinks
b) in weak models with restricted mobility, proposing and evaluating
a mix of static and mobile sinks and c) proposing a distributed
protocol that tends to {equally spread the sinks} in the network to
further improve performance.
Our protocols are simple, based on randomization and assume locally
obtainable information. We perform an extensive evaluation via simulation; our
findings demonstrate that our solutions scale very well with respect to the number of sinks
and significantly reduce energy consumption and delivery delay.

Abstract: In this Phd thesis,, we try to use formal logic and threshold phenomena that asymptotically emerge with certainty in order to build new trust models and to evaluate the existing one. The departure point of our work is that dynamic, global computing systems are not amenable to a static viewpoint of the trust concept, no matter how this concept is formalized. We believe that trust should be a statistical, asymptotic concept to be studied in the limit as the system's components grow according to some growth rate. Thus, our main goal is to define trust as an emerging system property that ``appears'' or "disappears" when a set of properties hold, asymptotically with probability$ 0$ or $1$ correspondingly . Here we try to combine first and second order logic in order to analyze the trust measures of specific network models. Moreover we can use formal logic in order to determine whether generic reliability trust models provide a method for deriving trust between peers/entities as the network's components grow. Our approach can be used in a wide range of applications, such as monitoring the behavior of peers, providing a measure of trust between them, assessing the level of reliability of peers in a network. Wireless sensor networks are comprised of a vast number of ultra-small autonomous computing, communication and sensing devices, with restricted energy and computing capabilities, that co-operate to accomplish a large sensing task. Sensor networks can be very useful in practice. Such systems should at least guarantee the confidentiality and integrity of the information reported to the controlling authorities regarding the realization of environmental events. Therefore, key establishment is critical for the protection in wireless sensor networks and the prevention of adversaries from attacking the network. Finally in this dissertation we also propose three distributed group key establishment protocols suitable for such energy constrained networks. This dissertation is composed of two parts. Part I develops the theory of the first and second order logic of graphs - their definition, and the analysis of their properties that are expressible in the {\em first order language} of graphs. In part II we introduce some new distributed group key establishment protocols suitable for sensor networks. Several key establishment schemes are derived and their performance is demonstrated.

Abstract: Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) is one of the
most promising alternatives to conventional public
key cryptography, such as RSA and ElGamal, since
it employs keys of smaller sizes for the same level
of cryptographic strength. Smaller key sizes imply
smaller hardware units for performing the arithmetic
operations required by cryptographic protocols and,
thus, ECC is an ideal candidate for implementation
in embedded systems where the major computational
resources (speed and storage) are limited.
In this paper we present a port, written in ANSI C
for maximum portability, of an open source ECCbased
cryptographic library (ECC-LIB) to ATMEL¢s
AT76C520 802.11 WLAN Access Point. One of the
major features of this port, not found in similar ports,
is that it supports Complex Multiplication (CM) for
the construction of Elliptic Curves with good security
properties. We present some experimental results that
demonstrate that the port is efficient and can lead to generic embedded systems with robust ECC-based
cryptographic protocols using cryptographically strong
ECCs generated with CM. As an application of the
ported library, an EC Diffie-Hellman key exchange
protocol is developed as an alternative of the 4-way
key handshake protocol of the 802.11 protocol.

Abstract: Embedded computing devices dominate our everyday activities, from cell phones to wireless sensors that collect and process data for various applications. Although desktop and high-end server security seems to be under control by the use of current security technology, securing the low-end embedded computing systems is a difficult long-term problem. This is mainly due to the fact that the embedded systems are constrained by their operational environment and the limited resources they are equipped with. Recent research activities focus on the deployment of lightweight cryptographic algorithms and security protocols that are well suited to the limited resources of low-end embedded systems. Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) offers an interesting alternative to the classical public key cryptography for embedded systems (e.g., RSA and ElGamal), since it uses smaller key sizes for achieving the same security level, thus making ECC an attractive and efficient alternative for deployment in embedded systems. In this chapter, the processing requirements and architectures for secure network access, communication functions, storage, and high availability of embedded devices are discussed. In addition, ECC-based state-of-the-art lightweight cryptographic primitives for the deployment of security protocols in embedded systems that fulfill the requirements are presented.

Abstract: In this work, we study protocols so that populations of distributed processes can construct networks. In order to highlight the basic principles of distributed network construction, we keep the model minimal in all respects. In particular, we assume finite-state processes that all begin from the same initial state and all execute the same protocol. Moreover, we assume pairwise interactions between the processes that are scheduled by a fair adversary. In order to allow processes to construct networks, we let them activate and deactivate their pairwise connections. When two processes interact, the protocol takes as input the states of the processes and the state of their connection and updates all of them. Initially all connections are inactive and the goal is for the processes, after interacting and activating/deactivating connections for a while, to end up with a desired stable network. We give protocols (optimal in some cases) and lower bounds for several basic network construction problems such as spanning line, spanning ring, spanning star, and regular network. The expected time to convergence of our protocols is analyzed under a uniform random scheduler. Finally, we prove several universality results by presenting generic protocols that are capable of simulating a Turing Machine (TM) and exploiting it in order to construct a large class of networks. We additionally show how to partition the population into k supernodes, each being a line of log k nodes, for the largest such k. This amount of local memory is sufficient for the supernodes to obtain unique names and exploit their names and their memory to realize nontrivial constructions.

Abstract: In this work, we study protocols (i.e. distributed algorithms) so that populations of distributed processes can construct networks. In order to highlight the basic principles of distributed network construction we keep the model minimal in all respects. In particular, we assume finite-state processes that all begin from the same initial state and all execute the same protocol (i.e. the system is homogeneous). Moreover, we assume pairwise interactions between the processes that are scheduled by an adversary. The only constraint on the adversary scheduler is that it must be fair, intuitively meaning that it must assign to every reachable configuration of the system a non-zero probability to occur. In order to allow processes to construct networks, we let them activate and deactivate their pairwise connections. When two processes interact, the protocol takes as input the states of the processes and the state of their connection and updates all of them. In particular, in every interaction, the protocol may activate an inactive connection, deactivate an active one, or leave the state of a connection unchanged. Initially all connections are inactive and the goal is for the processes, after interacting and activating/deactivating connections for a while, to end up with a desired stable network (i.e. one that does not change any more). We give protocols (optimal in some cases) and lower bounds for several basic network construction problems such as spanning line, spanning ring, spanning star, and regular network. We provide proofs of correctness for all of our protocols and analyze the expected time to convergence of most of them under a uniform random scheduler that selects the next pair of interacting processes uniformly at random from all such pairs. Finally, we prove several universality results by presenting generic protocols that are capable of simulating a Turing Machine (TM) and exploiting it in order to construct a large class of networks. Our universality protocols use a subset of the population (waste) in order to distributedly construct there a TM able to decide a graph class in some given space. Then, the protocols repeatedly construct in the rest of the population (useful space) a graph equiprobably drawn from all possible graphs. The TM works on this and accepts if the presented graph is in the class. We additionally show how to partition the population into k supernodes, each being a line of log k nodes, for the largest such k. This amount of local memory is sufficient for the supernodes to obtain unique names and exploit their names and their memory to realize nontrivial constructions. Delicate composition and reinitialization issues have to be solved for these general constructions to work.

Abstract: Smart Dust is a set of a ast number of ultra-small fully autonomous computing and communication devices, with very restricted energy and computing capabilities, that cooperate to quickly and efficiently accomplish a large sensing task. Smart Dust can be very useful in practice i.e. in the local detection of a remote crucial event and the propagation of data reporting its realization. In this work we make an effort towards the research on smart dust from a basic algorithmic point of view. We first provide a simple but realistic model for smart dust and present an interesting problem, which is how to propagate efficiently information on an event detected locally. Then we present smart dust protocols for local detection and propagation that are simple enough to be implemented on real smart dust systems, and perform, under some simplifying assumptions, a rigorous average case analysis of their efficiency and energy consumption (and their interplay). This analysis leads to concrete results showing that our protocols are very efficient.

Abstract: Smart Dust is a set of a vast number of ultra-small fully
autonomous computing and communication devices, with very restricted
energy and computing capabilities, that co-operate to quickly and efficiently
accomplish a large sensing task.
Smart Dust can be very useful in practice
i.e. in the local detection of a remote crucial event and
the propagation of data reporting its realization.
In this work we make an effort towards the research on smart dust
from a basic algorithmic point of view.
We first provide a simple but realistic model for smart dust
and present an interesting problem, which is how to propagate efficiently
information on an event detected locally.
Then we present smart dust protocols for local detection
and propagation that are simple enough to be implemented
on real smart dust systems, and perform, under some simplifying assumptions,
a rigorous average case analysis of their efficiency and energy consumption
(and their interplay).
This analysis leads to concrete results showing that our protocols
are very efficient.

Abstract: We consider the important problem of energy balanced data propagation in wireless sensor networks and we extend and generalize
previous works by allowing adaptive energy assignment. We consider the data gathering problem where data are generated by the sensors and
must be routed toward a unique sink. Sensors route data by either sending the data directly to the sink or in a multi-hop fashion by delivering
the data to a neighbouring sensor. Direct and neighbouring transmissions require different levels of energy consumption. Basically, the protocols balance the energy consumption among the sensors by computing the adequate ratios of direct and neighbouring transmissions. An abstract model of energy dissipation as a random walk is proposed, along with rigorous performance analysis techniques. Two efficient distributed algorithms are presented and analysed, by both rigorous means and simulation.
The first one is easy to implement and fast to execute. The protocol assumes that sensors know a-priori the rate of data they generate.
The sink collects and processes all these information in order to compute the relevant value of the protocol parameter. This value is transmitted
to the sensors which individually compute their optimal ratios of direct and neighbouring transmissions. The second protocol avoids the necessary a-priori knowledge of the data rate generated by sensors by inferring the relevant information from the observation of the data paths.
Furthermore, this algorithm is based on stochastic estimation methods and is adaptive to environmental changes.

Abstract: We investigate the impact of different mobility rates on the
performance of routing protocols in ad-hoc mobile networks. Based
on our investigation, we design a new protocol that results from
the synthesis of the well known protocols: ZRP and RUNNERS. We have implemented the new protocol as well as
the original two protocols and conducted an extensive, comparative
simulation study of their performance. The new protocol behaves
well both in networks of diverse mobility motion rates, and in
some cases even outperforms the original ones by achieving lower
message delivery delays.

Abstract: In this work, we consider a \emph{solution of automata} similar to \emph{Population Protocols} and \emph{Network Constructors}. The automata (also called \emph{nodes}) move passively in a well-mixed solution without being capable of controlling their movement. However, the nodes can \emph{cooperate} by interacting in pairs. Every such interaction may result in an update of the local states of the nodes. Additionally, the nodes may also choose to connect to each other in order to start forming some required structure. We may think of such nodes as the \emph{smallest possible programmable pieces of matter}, like tiny nanorobots or programmable molecules. The model that we introduce here is a more applied version of Network Constructors, imposing \emph{physical} (or \emph{geometrical}) \emph{constraints} on the connections that the nodes are allowed to form. Each node can connect to other nodes only via a very limited number of \emph{local ports}, which implies that at any given time it has only a \emph{bounded number of neighbors}. Connections are always made at \emph{unit distance} and are \emph{perpendicular to connections of neighboring ports}. Though such a model cannot form abstract networks like Network Constructors, it is still capable of forming very practical \emph{2D or 3D shapes}. We provide direct constructors for some basic shape construction problems, like \emph{spanning line}, \emph{spanning square}, and \emph{self-replication}. We then develop \emph{new techniques} for determining the computational and constructive capabilities of our model. One of the main novelties of our approach, concerns our attempt to overcome the inability of such systems to detect termination. In particular, we exploit the assumptions that the system is well-mixed and has a unique leader, in order to \emph{give terminating protocols that are correct with high probability}. This allows us to develop terminating subroutines that can be \emph{sequentially composed} to form larger \emph{modular protocols} (which has not been the case in the relevant literature). One of our main results is a \emph{terminating protocol counting the size $n$ of the system} with high probability. We then use this protocol as a subroutine in order to develop our \emph{universal constructors}, establishing that \emph{it is possible for the nodes to become self-organized with high probability into arbitrarily complex shapes while still detecting termination of the construction}.

Abstract: We extend the population protocol model with a cover-time service that informs a walking state every time it covers the whole network. This represents a known upper bound on the cover time of a random walk. The cover-time service allows us to introduce termination into population protocols, a capability that is crucial for any distributed system. By reduction to an oracle-model we arrive at a very satisfactory lower bound on the computational power of the model: we prove that it is at least as strong as a Turing Machine of space log n with input commutativity, where n is the number of nodes in the network. We also give a log n-space, but nondeterministic this time, upper bound. Finally, we prove interesting similarities of this model to linear bounded automata.

Abstract: We extend the population protocol model with a cover-time service that informs a walking state every time it covers the whole network. This is simply a known upper bound on the cover time of a random walk. This allows us to introduce termination into population protocols, a capability that is crucial for any distributed system. By reduction to an oracle-model we arrive at a very satisfactory lower bound on the computational power of the model: we prove that it is at least as strong as a Turing Machine of space logn with input commutativity, where n is the number of nodes in the network. We also give a logn-space, but nondeterministic this time, upper bound. Finally, we prove interesting similarities of this model to linear bounded automata.

Abstract: We explore the capability of a network of extremely limited
computational entities to decide properties about any of its subnetworks.
We consider that the underlying network of the interacting
entities (devices, agents, processes etc.) is modeled by a complete in-
teraction graph and we devise simple graph protocols that can decide
properties of some input subgraph provided by some preprocessing on
the network. The agents are modeled as nite-state automata and run
the same global graph protocol. Each protocol is a xed size grammar,
that is, its description is independent of the size (number of agents) of
the network. This size is not known by the agents. We propose a simple
model, the Mediated Graph Protocol (MGP) model, similar to the Population
Protocol model of Angluin et al., in which each network link is
characterized by a state taken from a nite set. This state can be used
and updated during each interaction between the corresponding agents.
We provide some interesting properties of the MGP model among which
is the ability to decide properties on stabilizing (initially changing for a
nite number of steps) input graphs and we show that the MGP model
has the ability to decide properties of disconnected input graphs. We
show that the computational power within the connected components is
fairly restricted. Finally, we give an exact characterization of the class
GMGP, of graph languages decidable by the MGP model: it is equal
to the class of graph languages decidable by a nondeterministic Turing
Machine of linear space that receives its input graph by its adjacency
matrix representation.

Abstract: We explore the capability of a network of extremely limited computational entities to decide properties about itself or any of its subnetworks. We consider that the underlying network of the interacting entities (devices, agents, processes etc.) is modeled by an interaction graph that reflects the network’s connectivity. We examine the following two cases: First, we consider the case where the input graph is the whole interaction graph and second where it is some subgraph of the interaction graph given by some preprocessing on the network. In each case, we devise simple graph protocols that can decide properties of the input graph. The computational entities, that are called agents, are modeled as finite-state automata and run the same global graph protocol. Each protocol is a fixed size grammar, that is, its description is independent of the size (number of agents) of the network. This size is not known by the agents. We present two simple models (one for each case), the Graph Decision Mediated Population Protocol (GDMPP) and the Mediated Graph Protocol (MGP) models, similar to the Population Protocol model of Angluin et al., where each network link (edge of the interaction graph) is characterized by a state taken from a finite set. This state can be used and updated during each interaction between the corresponding agents. We provide some example protocols and some interesting properties for the two models concerning the computability of graph languages in various settings (disconnected input graphs, stabilizing input graphs). We show that the computational power within the family of all (at least) weakly-connected input graphs is fairly restricted. Finally, we give an exact characterization of the class of graph languages decidable by the MGP model in the case of complete interaction graphs: it is equal to the class of graph languages decidable by a nondeterministic Turing Machine of linear space that receives its input graph by its adjacency matrix representation.

Abstract: In the near future, it is reasonable to expect that new types of systems will appear, of massive scale that will operating in a constantly changing networked environment. We expect that most such systems will have the form of a large society of tiny networked artefacts. Angluin et al. introduced the notion of "Probabilistic Population Protocols'' (PPP) in order to model the behavior of such systems where extremely limited agents are represented as finite state machines that interact in pairs under the control of an adversary scheduler. We propose to study the dynamics of Probabilistic Population Protocols, via the differential equations approach. We provide a very general model that allows to examine the continuous dynamics of population protocols and we show that it includes the model of Angluin et. al., under certain conditions, with respect to the continuous dynamics of the two models. Our main proposal here is to exploit the powerful tools of continuous nonlinear dynamics in order to examine the behavior of such systems. We also provide a sufficient condition for stability.

Abstract: Angluin et al. [1] introduced the notion of ``Probabilistic Population Protocols'' where extremely limited agents are represented as finite state machines that interact in pairs under the control of an adversary scheduler. We provide a very general model that allows to examine the continuous dynamics of population protocols and we show that it includes the model of [1], under certain conditions, with respect to the continuous dynamics of the two models.

Abstract: A packet-switching network is stable if the number of packets in the network remains bounded at all times. A very natural question that arises in the context of stability properties of such networks is how network structure precisely affects these properties. In this work we embark on a systematic study of this question in the context of Adversarial Queueing Theory, which assumes that packets are adversarially injected into the network. We consider size, diameter, maximum vertex degree, minimum number of disjoint paths that cover all edges of the network and network subgraphs as crucial structural parameters of the network, and we present a comprehensive collection of structural results, in the form of stability and instability bounds on injection rate of the adversary for various greedy protocols: —Increasing the size of a network may result in dropping its instability bound. This is shown through a novel, yet simple and natural, combinatorial construction of a size-parameterized network on which certain compositions of greedy protocols are running. The convergence of the drop to 0.5 is found to be fast with and proportional to the increase in size. —Maintaining the size of a network small may already suffice to drop its instability bound to a substantially low value. This is shown through a construction of a FIFO network with size 22, which becomes unstable at rate 0.704. This represents the current state-of-the-art trade-off between network size and instability bound. —The diameter, maximum vertex degree and minimum number of edge-disjoint paths that cover a network may be used as control parameters for the stability bound of the network. This is shown through an improved analysis of the stability bound of any arbitrary FIFO network, which takes these parameters into account. —How much can network subgraphs that are forbidden for stability affect the instability bound? Through improved combinatorial constructions of networks and executions, we improve the state-of-the-art instability bound induced by certain known forbidden subgraphs on networks running a certain greedy protocol. —Our results shed more light and contribute significantly to a finer understanding of the impact of structural parameters on stability and instability properties of networks.

Abstract: In this work, we study the impact of the dynamic changing of the network link capacities on the stability properties of packet-switched networks. Especially, we consider the Adversarial, Quasi-Static Queuing Theory model, where each link capacity may take on only two possible (integer) values, namely 1 and C>1 under a (w,\~{n})-adversary. We obtain the following results:
• Allowing such dynamic changes to the link capacities of a network with just ten nodes that uses the LIS (Longest-in-System) protocol for contention–resolution results in instability at rates View the MathML source and for large enough values of C.
• The combination of dynamically changing link capacities with compositions of contention–resolution protocols on network queues suffices for similar instability bounds: The composition of LIS with any of SIS (Shortest-in-System), NTS (Nearest-to-Source), and FTG (Furthest-to-Go) protocols is unstable at rates View the MathML source for large enough values of C.
• The instability bound of the network subgraphs that are forbidden for stability is affected by the dynamic changes to the link capacities: we present improved instability bounds for all the directed subgraphs that were known to be forbidden for stability on networks running a certain greedy protocol.

Abstract: For the Internet of Things to ﬁnally become a reality, obstacles on different levels need to be overcome. This is especially true for the upcoming challenge of leaving the domain of technical experts and scientists. Devices need to connect to the Internet and be able to offer services. They have to announce and describe these services in machine understandable ways so that user-facing systems are able to ﬁnd and utilize them. They have to learn about their physical surroundings, so that they can serve sensing or acting purposes without explicit conﬁguration or programming. Finally, it must be possible to include IoT devices in complex systems that combine local and remote data, from different sources, in novel and surprising ways.
We show how all of that is possible today. Our solution uses open standards and state-of-the art protocols to achieve this. It is based on 6LowPAN and CoAP for the communications part, semantic web technologies for meaningful data exchange, autonomous sensor correlation to learn about the environment, and software built around the Linked Data principles to be open for novel and unforeseen applications.

Abstract: Data propagation in wireless sensor networks can be performed either by hop-by-hop single transmissions or by multi-path broadcast of data. Although several energy-aware MAC layer protocols exist that operate very well in the case of single point-to-point transmissions, none is especially designed and suitable for multiple broadcast transmissions.In this paper we propose a family of new protocols suitable of multi-path broadcast of data, and show, through a detailed and extended simulation evaluation, that our parameter-based protocols significantly reduce the number of collisions and thus increase the rate of successful message delivery (to above 90%) by trading off the average propagation delay. At the same time, our protocols are shown to be very energy efficient, in terms of the average energy dissipation per delivered message.

Abstract: In this paper we describe a new simulation platform for complex wireless sensor networks that operate a collection of distributed algorithms and network protocols. Simulating such systems is complicated because of the need to coordinate different network layers and debug protocol stacks, often with very different interfaces, options, and fidelities. Our platform (which we call WSNGE) is a flexible and extensible environment that provides a highly scalable simulator with unique characteristics. It focuses on user friendliness, providing every function in both scriptable and visual way, allowing the researcher to define simulations and view results in an easy to use graphical environment. Unlike other solutions, WSNGE does not distinguish between different scenario types, allowing multiple different protocols to run at the same time. It enables rich online interaction with running simulations, allowing parameters, topologies or the whole scenario to be altered at any point in time.