Abstract: In this work we study the important problem of colouring squares of planar graphs (SQPG). We design and implement two new algorithms that colour in a different way SQPG. We call these algorithms MDsatur and RC. We have also implemented and experimentally evaluated the performance of most of the known approximation colouring algorithms for SQPG [14, 6, 4, 10]. We compare the quality of the colourings achieved by these algorithms, with the colourings obtained by our algorithms and with the results obtained from two well-known greedy colouring heuristics. The heuristics are mainly used for comparison reasons and unexpectedly give very good results. Our algorithm MDsatur outperforms the known algorithms as shown by the extensive experiments we have carried out.
The planar graph instances whose squares are used in our experiments are “non-extremal” graphs obtained by LEDA and hard colourable graph instances that we construct.
The most interesting conclusions of our experimental study are:
1) all colouring algorithms considered here have almost optimal performance on the squares of “non-extremal” planar graphs. 2) all known colouring algorithms especially designed for colouring SQPG, give significantly better results, even on hard to colour graphs, when the vertices of the input graph are randomly named. On the other hand, the performance of our algorithm, MDsatur, becomes worse in this case, however it still has the best performance compared to the others. MDsatur colours the tested graphs with 1.1 OPT colours in most of the cases, even on hard instances, where OPT denotes the number of colours in an optimal colouring. 3) we construct worst case instances for the algorithm of Fotakis el al. [6], which show that its theoretical analysis is tight.

Abstract: An intersection graph of n vertices assumes that each vertex is equipped with a subset of a global label set. Two vertices share an edge
when their label sets intersect. Random Intersection Graphs (RIGs) (as defined in [18, 31]) consider label sets formed by the following experiment:
each vertex, independently and uniformly, examines all the labels (m in total) one by one. Each examination is independent and the vertex
succeeds to put the label in her set with probability p. Such graphs nicely capture interactions in networks due to sharing of resources among nodes.
We study here the problem of efficiently coloring (and of finding upper bounds to the chromatic number) of RIGs. We concentrate in a range
of parameters not examined in the literature, namely: (a) m = n{\'a} for less than 1 (in this range, RIGs differ substantially from the Erd¨os- Renyi random graphs) and (b) the selection probability p is quite high
(e.g. at least ln2 n m in our algorithm) and disallows direct greedy colouring methods.
We manage to get the following results:
For the case mp ln n, for any constant < 1 − , we prove that np colours are enough to colour most of the vertices of the graph with high probability (whp). This means that even for quite dense
graphs, using the same number of colours as those needed to properly colour the clique induced by any label suffices to colour almost all of the vertices of the graph. Note also that this range of values of m, p
is quite wider than the one studied in [4].
� We propose and analyze an algorithm CliqueColour for finding a proper colouring of a random instance of Gn,m,p, for any mp >=ln2 n. The algorithm uses information of the label sets assigned to the
vertices of Gn,m,p and runs in O (n2mp2/ln n) time, which is polynomial in n and m. We also show by a reduction to the uniform random
intersection graphs model that the number of colours required by the algorithm are of the correct order of magnitude with the actual
chromatic number of Gn,m,p.
⋆ This work was partially supported by the ICT Programme of the European Union under contract number ICT-2008-215270 (FRONTS). Also supported by Research Training Group GK-693 of the Paderborn Institute for Scientific Computation
(PaSCo).
� We finally compare the problem of finding a proper colouring for Gn,m,p to that of colouring hypergraphs so that no edge is monochromatic.We show how one can find in polynomial time a k-colouring of the vertices of Gn,m,p, for any integer k, such that no clique induced by only one label in Gn,m,p is monochromatic. Our techniques are novel and try to exploit as much as possible the hidden structure of random intersection graphs in this interesting range.

Abstract: In this work we present an efficient algorithm which, with high probability, provides
an almost uniform sample from the set of proper $\chi$-colourings of an instance of sparse
random graphs $G_{n,d/n}$, where $\chi=\chi(d)$ is a sufficiently large constant.
This work improves, asymptotically, the result of Dyer, Flaxman Frieze and Vigoda
in \cite{previous-result} where the algorithm proposed there needs at least
$\Theta(\frac{\log \log n}{\log \log \log n})$ colours.