Abstract: We demonstrate a 40 Gb/s self-synchronizing, all-optical packet
clock recovery circuit designed for efficient packet-mode traffic. The circuit
locks instantaneously and enables sub-nanosecond packet spacing due to the
low clock persistence time. A low-Q Fabry-Perot filter is used as a passive
resonator tuned to the line-rate that generates a retimed clock-resembling
signal. As a reshaping element, an optical power-limiting gate is
incorporated to perform bitwise pulse equalization. Using two preamble
bits, the clock is captured instantly and persists for the duration of the data
packet increased by 16 bits. The performance of the circuit suggests its
suitability for future all-optical packet-switched networks with reduced
transmission overhead and fine network granularity.

Abstract: The efficient use of resources and the lossless transfer of data bursts in future optical
networks requires the accurate knowledge of the available bandwidth for each network
link. Such information is important in monitoring congestions and can be used by
appropriate load balancing and congestion avoidance mechanisms. In this paper we
propose a mechanism for monitoring and subsequently managing bandwidth resources,
using the Simple NetworkManagement Protocol (SNMP). In the proposed mechanism,
link bandwidth availability is not a scalar parameter, but a function of time that records
the future utilization of the link. For every output port, each agent-node maintains a
simple data structure in the form of a table that records the utilization profile of that
outgoing link. With the addition of new objects in the Management Information Base
(MIB) of each agent-node and proper synchronization, SNMP can be used to update
and retrieve the reservations made on the links in order to obtain an instant picture of
the networktraffic situation.

Abstract: In this work we propose a new unified PON
RAN architecture for LTE mobile backhaul networks,
employing ringbased WDM PONs. The proposed
architecture supports dynamic setup of virtual circ
uits for interbase station communication, over a dedicated
λ
LAN channel. The reservation mechanism is arbitrated by the OLT, which also monitors the traffic imbalances of downstream channels. The proposed architecture also supports load balancing, by dynamically reallocatin
g and sharing the capacity of the downstream wavelengths.

Abstract: Core networks of the future will have a
translucent and eventually transparent optical
structure. Ultra-high-speed end-to-end connectiv-
ity with high quality of service and high reliability
will be realized through the exploitation of opti-
mized protocols and lightpath routing algorithms.
These algorithms will complement a flexible con-
trol and management plane integrated in the
proposed solution. Physical layer impairments
and optical performance are monitored and
incorporated in impairment-aware lightpath rout-
ing algorithms. These algorithms will be integrat-
ed into a novel dynamic network planning tool
that will consider dynamic traffic characteristics,
a reconfigurable optical layer, and varying physi-
cal impairment and component characteristics.
The network planning tool along with extended
control planes will make it possible to realize the
vision of optical transparency. This article pre-
sents a novel framework that addresses dynamic
cross-layer network planning and optimization
while considering the development of a future
transport network infrastructure.

Abstract: The efficient use of resources and the lossless transfer of data bursts in future optical
networks requires the accurate knowledge of the available bandwidth for each network
link. Such information is important in monitoring congestions and can be used by
appropriate load balancing and congestion avoidance mechanisms. In this paper we
propose a mechanism for monitoring and subsequently managing bandwidth resources,
using the Simple NetworkManagement Protocol (SNMP). In the proposed mechanism,
link bandwidth availability is not a scalar parameter, but a function of time that records
the future utilization of the link. For every output port, each agent-node maintains a
simple data structure in the form of a table that records the utilization profile of that
outgoing link. With the addition of new objects in the Management Information Base
(MIB) of each agent-node and proper synchronization, SNMP can be used to update
and retrieve the reservations made on the links in order to obtain an instant picture of
the networktraffic situation.

Abstract: We design and implement a multicost impairment- aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithm for online traffic. In transparent optical networks the quality of a transmission degrades due to physical layer impairments. To serve a connection, the proposed algorithm finds a path and a free wavelength (a lightpath) that has acceptable signal quality performance by estimating a quality of transmission measure, called the Q factor. We take into account channel utilization in the network, which changes as new connections are established or released, in order to calculate the noise variances that correspond to physical impairments on the links. These, along with the time invariant eye impairment penalties of all candidate network paths, form the inputs to the algorithm. The multicost algorithm finds a set of so called non-dominated Q paths from the given source to the given destination. Various objective functions are then evaluated in order to choose the optimal lightpath to serve the connection. The proposed algorithm combines the strength of multicost optimization with low execution time, making it appropriate for serving online connections.

Abstract: In this paper, we present a new hybrid optical burst switch architecture (HOBS) that takes advantage of the pre-transmission idle
time during lightpath establishment. In dynamic circuit switching (wavelength routing) networks, capacity is immediately hardreserved
upon the arrival of a setup message at a node, but it is used at least a round-trip time delay later. This waste of resources
is significant in optical multi-gigabit networks and can be used to transmit traffic of a lower class of service in a non-competing
way. The proposed hybrid OBS architecture, takes advantage of this idle time to transmit one-way optical bursts of a lower class of
service, while high priority data explicitly requests and establishes end-to-end lightpaths. In the proposed scheme, the two control
planes (two-way and one-way OBS reservation) are merged, in the sense that each SETUP message, used for the two-way lightpath
establishment, is associated with one-way burst transmission and therefore it is modified to carry routing and overhead information
for the one-way traffic as well. In this paper, we present the main architectural features of the proposed hybrid scheme and further
we assess its performance by conducting simulation experiments on the NSF net backbone topology. The extensive network study
revealed that the proposed hybrid architecture can achieve and sustain an adequate burst transmission rate with a finite worst case
delay.

Abstract: We propose a priority-based balanced routing scheme, called the priority STAR routing scheme, which leads to optimal throughput and average delay at the same time for random broadcasting and routing. In particular, the average reception delay for random broadcasting required in n1timesn2times...timesnd tori with ni=O(1), n-ary d-cubes with n=O(1), or d-dimensional hypercubes is O(d+1/(1-rho)). We also study the case where multiple communication tasks for random 1-1 routing and/or random broadcasting are executed at the same time. When a constant fraction of the traffic is contributed by broadcast requests, the average delay for random 1-1 routing required in any d-dimensional hypercube, any n-ary d-cube with n = O(1), and most n1timesn2times...timesnd tori with ni=O(1) are O(d) based on priority STAR. Our simulation results show that the priority-based balanced routing scheme considerably outperform the best previous routing schemes for these networks

Abstract: We introduce a new modelling assumption for wireless sensor networks, that of node redeployment (addition of sensor devices during protocol evolution) and we extend the modelling assumption of heterogeneity (having sensor devices of various types). These two features further increase the highly dynamic nature of such networks and adaptation becomes a powerful technique for protocol design. Under these modelling assumptions, we design, implement and evaluate a new power conservation scheme for efficient data propagation. Our scheme is adaptive: it locally monitors the network conditions (density, energy) and accordingly adjusts the sleep-awake schedules of the nodes towards improved operation choices. The scheme is simple, distributed and does not require exchange of control messages between nodes.
Implementing our protocol in software we combine it with two well-known data propagation protocols and evaluate the achieved performance through a detailed simulation study using our extended version of the network simulator ns-2. We focus on highly dynamic scenarios with respect to network density, traffic conditions and sensor node resources. We propose a new general and parameterized metric capturing the trade-offs between delivery rate, energy efficiency and latency. The simulation findings demonstrate significant gains (such as more than doubling the success rate of the well-known Directed Diffusion propagation protocol) and good trade-offs achieved. Furthermore, the redeployment of additional sensors during network evolution and/or the heterogeneous deployment of sensors, drastically improve (when compared to ``equal total power" simultaneous deployment of identical sensors at the start) the protocol performance (i.e. the success rate increases up to four times} while reducing energy dissipation and, interestingly, keeping latency low).

Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks are by nature highly dynamic and communication between sensors is completely ad hoc, especially when mobile devices are part of the setup. Numerous protocols and applications proposed for such networks
operate on the assumption that knowledge of the neighborhood is a priori available to all nodes. As a result, WSN deployments need to use or implement from scratch a neighborhood discovery mechanism. In this work we present a new protocol based on adaptive periodic beacon exchanges. We totally avoid continuous beaconing by adjusting the rate of broadcasts using the concept of consistency over the understanding of neighborhood that nearby devices share. We propose, implement and evaluate our adaptive neighborhood discovery protocol over our experimental testbed and using large scale simulations. Our results indicate that the
new protocol operates more eciently than existing reference implementations while it provides valid information to applications that use it. Extensive performance evaluation indicates that it successfully reduces generated networktraffic by 90% and increases network lifetime by 20% compared to existing mechanisms that rely on continuous beaconing.

Abstract: In this paper we study the problem of basic communication
in ad-hoc mobile networks where the deployment area changes in a
highly dynamic way and is unknown. We call such networks
highly changing ad-hoc mobile networks.
For such networks we investigate an efficient communication protocol which extends
the idea (introduced in [WAE01,POMC01]) of exploiting the co-ordinated
motion of a small part of an ad-hoc mobile
network (the ``runners support") to achieve
very fast communication between any two mobile users of the network.
The basic idea of the new protocol presented here is, instead
of using a fixed sized support for the whole duration of the protocol,
to employ a support of some initial (small) size which
adapts (given some time which can be made fast enough) to the
actual levels of traffic and the
(unknown and possibly rapidly changing) network area by
changing its size in order to converge to an optimal size,
thus satisfying certain Quality of Service criteria.
We provide here some proofs of correctness and fault tolerance
of this adaptive approach and we also provide analytical results
using Markov Chains and random walk techniques to show that such
an adaptive approach is, for this class of ad-hoc mobile networks, significantly more efficient than a simple non-adaptive
implementation of the basic ``runners support" idea.

Abstract: We introduce a new modelling assumption in wireless sensor networks, that of node redeployment (addition of sensor devices during the protocol evolution) and we extend the modelling assumption of heterogeneity (having sensor devices of various types). These two features further increase the highly dynamic nature of such networks and adaptation becomes a powerful technique for protocol design. Under this model, we design, implement and evaluate a power conservation scheme for efficient data propagation. Our protocol is adaptive: it locally monitors the network conditions (density, energy) and accordingly adjusts the sleep-awake schedules of the nodes towards best operation choices. Our protocol operates does not require exchange of control messages between nodes to coordinate.Implementing our protocol we combine it with two well-known data propagation protocols and evaluate the achieved performance through a detailed simulation study using our extended version of Ns2. We focus in highly dynamic scenarios with respect to network density, traffic conditions and sensor node resources. We propose a new general and parameterized metric capturing the trade-off between delivery rate, energy efficiency and latency. The simulation findings demonstrate significant gains (such as more than doubling the success rate of the well-known Directed Diffusion propagation paradigm) and good trade-offs. Furthermore, redeployment of sensors during network evolution and/or heterogeneous deployment of sensors drastically improve (when compared to equal total "power" simultaneous deployment of identical sensors at the start) the protocol performance (the success rate increases up to four times while reducing energy dissipation and, interestingly, keeping latency low).

Abstract: We introduce a new model of
ad-hoc mobile networks, which we call hierarchical,
that are comprised of dense subnetworks of mobile
users (corresponding to highly populated
geographical areas, such as cities),
interconnected across access ports
by sparse but frequently used connections
(such as highways).
For such networks, we present
an efficient routing protocol which extends
the idea (introduced in WAE00) of exploiting the co-ordinated
motion of a small part of an ad-hoc mobile
network (the ``support'') to achieve
very fast communication between any two mobile users of the network.
The basic idea of the new protocol presented here is, instead
of using a unique (large) support for the whole network,
to employ a hierarchy of (small) supports (one for each city)
and also take advantage of the regular traffic
of mobile users across the interconnection highways to communicate
between cities.
We combine here theoretical analysis (average case estimations based on random walk properties) and experimental implementations (carried out using the LEDA platform) to claim and validate results showing that such a hierarchical routing approach is,
for this class of ad-hoc mobile networks, significantly more efficient than a simple extension of the
basic ``support'' idea presented in WAE00.

Abstract: Urban road networks are represented as directed graphs, accompanied by a metric which assigns cost functions (rather than scalars) to the arcs, e.g. representing time-dependent arc-traversal-times. In this work, we present oracles for providing time-dependent min-cost route plans, and conduct their experimental evaluation on a real-world data set (city of Berlin). Our oracles are based on precomputing all landmark-to-vertex shortest travel-time functions, for properly selected landmark sets. The core of this preprocessing phase is based on a novel, quite efficient and simple oneto-all approximation method for creating approximations of shortest travel-time functions. We then propose three query algorithms, including a PTAS, to efficiently provide mincost route plan responses to arbitrary queries. Apart from the purely algorithmic challenges, we deal also with several
implementation details concerning the digestion of raw traffic data, and we provide heuristic improvements of both the preprocessing phase and the query algorithms. We conduct an extensive, comparative experimental study with all query algorithms and six landmark sets. Our results are quite encouraging, achieving remarkable speedups (at least by two orders of magnitude) and quite small approximation guarantees, over the time-dependent variant of Dijkstra˘s algorithm.

Abstract: We consider selfish routing over a network consisting of m parallellinks through which $n$ selfish users route their traffic trying tominimize their own expected latency. We study the class of mixedstrategies in which the expected latency through each link is at mosta constant multiple of the optimum maximum latency had globalregulation been available. For the case of uniform links it is knownthat all Nash equilibria belong to this class of strategies. We areinterested in bounding the coordination ratio (or price of anarchy) ofthese strategies defined as the worst-case ratio of the maximum (overall links) expected latency over the optimum maximum latency. The loadbalancing aspect of the problem immediately implies a lower boundO(ln m ln ln m) of the coordinationratio. We give a tight (up to a multiplicative constant) upper bound.To show the upper bound, we analyze a variant of the classical ballsand bins problem, in which balls with arbitrary weights are placedinto bins according to arbitrary probability distributions. At theheart of our approach is a new probabilistic tool that we call ballfusion; this tool is used to reduce the variant of the problem whereballs bear weights to the classical version (with no weights). Ballfusion applies to more general settings such as links with arbitrarycapacities and other latency functions.

Abstract: In this article, we present a detailed performance
evaluation of a hybrid optical switching (HOS)
architecture called Overspill Routing in Optical Networks
(ORION). The ORION architecture combines
(optical) wavelength and (electronic) packet switching,
so as to obtain the individual advantages of both switching
paradigms. In particular, ORION exploits the possible insertions/extractions, to reduce the necessary
interfaces, do not deteriorate performance and thus the
use of traffic concentrators assure ORION’s economic
viability.
idle periods of established lightpaths to transmit
packets destined to the next common node, or even
directly to their common end-destination. Depending
on whether all lightpaths are allowed to simultaneously
carry and terminate overspill traffic or overspill is restricted
to a sub-set of wavelengths, the architecture
limits itself to constrained or un-constrained ORION. To
evaluate both cases, we developed an extensive network
simulator where the basic features of the ORION architectureweremodeled,
including suitable edge/core node
switches and load-varying sources to simulate overloading
traffic conditions. Further, we have assessed various
aspects of the ORION architecture including two
basic routing/forwarding policies and various buffering
schemes. The complete network study shows that
ORION can absorb temporal traffic overloads, as intended,
provided sufficient buffering is present.We also
demonstrate that the restriction of simultaneous packet

Abstract: We investigate the existence of optimal tolls for atomic symmetric
network congestion games with unsplittable traffic and arbitrary non-negative and
non-decreasing latency functions.We focus on pure Nash equilibria and a natural
toll mechanism, which we call cost-balancing tolls. A set of cost-balancing tolls
turns every path with positive traffic on its edges into a minimum cost path. Hence
any given configuration is induced as a pure Nash equilibrium of the modified
game with the corresponding cost-balancing tolls. We show how to compute in
linear time a set of cost-balancing tolls for the optimal solution such that the total
amount of tolls paid by any player in any pure Nash equilibrium of the modified
game does not exceed the latency on the maximum latency path in the optimal
solution. Our main result is that for congestion games on series-parallel networks
with increasing latencies, the optimal solution is induced as the unique pure Nash
equilibrium of the game with the corresponding cost-balancing tolls. To the best
of our knowledge, only linear congestion games on parallel links were known to
admit optimal tolls prior to this work. To demonstrate the difficulty of computing
a better set of optimal tolls, we show that even for 2-player linear congestion
games on series-parallel networks, it is NP-hard to decide whether the optimal
solution is the unique pure Nash equilibrium or there is another equilibrium of
total cost at least 6/5 times the optimal cost.

Abstract: The Greek School Network (GSN) is the nationwide network that connects all units of primary and secondary education in Greece. GSN offers a significant set of diverse services to more than 15.000 schools and administrative units, and more than 60.000 teachers, placing GSN second in infrastructure size nationwide. GSN has relied on the emerging power of open source software to build cutting-edge services capable of covering internal administrative and monitoring needs, end user demands, and, foremost, modern pedagogical requirements for tools and services. GSN provides a wide set of advanced services, varying from web mail to virtual classrooms and synchronous/asynchronous tele-education. This paper presents an evaluation of GSN open source services based on the opinions of users who use GSN for educational purposes, and on usage and traffic measurement statistics. The paper reaches the conclusion that open source software provides a sound technological platform that meets the needs for cutting edge educational services deployment, and innovative, competitive software production for educational networks.

Abstract: In this work we introduce two practical and interesting models of ad-hoc mobile networks: (a) hierarchical ad-hoc networks, comprised of dense subnetworks of mobile users interconnected by a very fast yet limited backbone infrastructure, (b) highly changing ad-hoc networks, where the deployment area changes in a highly dynamic way and is unknown to the protocol. In such networks, we study the problem of basic communication, i.e., sending messages from a sender node to a receiver node. For highly changing networks, we investigate an efficient communication protocol exploiting the coordinated motion of a small part of an ad-hoc mobile network (the ldquorunners supportrdquo) to achieve fast communication. This protocol instead of using a fixed sized support for the whole duration of the protocol, employs a support of some initial (small) size which adapts (given some time which can be made fast enough) to the actual levels of traffic and the (unknown and possibly rapidly changing) network area, by changing its size in order to converge to an optimal size, thus satisfying certain Quality of Service criteria. Using random walks theory, we show that such an adaptive approach is, for this class of ad-hoc mobile networks, significantly more efficient than a simple non-adaptive implementation of the basic ldquorunners supportrdquo idea, introduced in [9,10]. For hierarchical ad-hoc networks, we establish communication by using a ldquorunnersrdquo support in each lower level of the hierarchy (i.e., in each dense subnetwork), while the fast backbone provides interconnections at the upper level (i.e., between the various subnetworks). We analyze the time efficiency of this hierarchical approach. This analysis indicates that the hierarchical implementation of the support approach significantly outperforms a simple implementation of it in hierarchical ad-hoc networks. Finally, we discuss a possible combination of the two approaches above (the hierarchical and the adaptive ones) that can be useful in ad-hoc networks that are both hierarchical and highly changing. Indeed, in such cases the hierarchical nature of these networks further supports the possibility of adaptation.

Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks consist of a large number of small, autonomous devices, that are able to interact with their inveronment by sensing and collaborate to fulfill their tasks, as, usually, a single node is incapable of doing so; and they use wireless communication to enable this collaboration. Each device has limited computational and energy resources, thus a basic issue in the applicastions of wireless sensor networks is the low energy consumption and hence, the maximization of the network lifetime.
The collected data is disseminated to a static control point – data sink in the network, using node to node - multi-hop data propagation. However, sensor devices consume significant amounts of energy in addition to increased implementation complexity, since a routing protocol is executed. Also, a point of failure emerges in the area near the control center where nodes relay the data from nodes that are farther away. Recently, a new approach has been developed that shifts the burden from the sensor nodes to the sink. The main idea is that the sink has significant and easily replenishable energy reserves and can move inside the area the sensor network is deployed, in order to acquire the data collected by the sensor nodes at very low energy cost. However, the need to visit all the regions of the network may result in large delivery delays.
In this work we have developed protocols that control the movement of the sink in wireless sensor networks with non-uniform deployment of the sensor nodes, in order to succeed an efficient (with respect to both energy and latency) data collection. More specifically, a graph formation phase is executed by the sink during the initialization: the network area is partitioned in equal square regions, where the sink, pauses for a certain amount of time, during the network traversal, in order to collect data.
We propose two network traversal methods, a deterministic and a random one. When the sink moves in a random manner, the selection of the next area to visit is done in a biased random manner depending on the frequency of visits of its neighbor areas. Thus, less frequently visited areas are favored. Moreover, our method locally determines the stop time needed to serve each region with respect to some global network resources, such as the initial energy reserves of the nodes and the density of the region, stopping for a greater time interval at regions with higher density, and hence more traffic load. In this way, we achieve accelerated coverage of the network as well as fairness in the service time of each region.Besides randomized mobility, we also propose an optimized deterministic trajectory without visit overlaps, including direct (one-hop) sensor-to-sink data transmissions only.
We evaluate our methods via simulation, in diverse network settings and comparatively to related state of the art solutions. Our findings demonstrate significant latency and energy consumption improvements, compared to previous research.

Abstract: We propose a general policy to allocate subcarriers to time-varying traffic in a flexible OFDM optical
network. We compare the OFDM network performance to that of a fixed-grid WDM network using simulations.

Abstract: This paper deals with early obstacles recognition in wireless sensor networks under various traffic
patterns. In the presence of obstacles, the efficiency of routing algorithms is increased by voluntarily avoiding some regions in the vicinity of obstacles, areas which we call dead-ends. In this paper, we first propose a fast convergent routing algorithm with proactive dead-end detection together with a formal definition and description of dead-ends. Secondly, we present a generalization of this algorithm which improves performances in all to many and all to all traffic patterns. In a third part we prove that this algorithm produces paths that are optimal up to a
constant factor of 2đ+1. In a fourth part we consider the reactive version of the algorithm which is an extension of a previously known early obstacle detection algorithm. Finally we give experimental results to illustrate the efficiency of our algorithms in different scenarios.

Abstract: In large-scale or evolving networks, such as the Internet,
there is no authority possible to enforce a centralized traffic management.
In such situations, Game Theory and the concepts of Nash equilibria
and Congestion Games [8] are a suitable framework for analyzing
the equilibrium effects of selfish routes selection to network delays.
We focus here on layered networks where selfish users select paths to
route their loads (represented by arbitrary integer weights). We assume
that individual link delays are equal to the total load of the link. We
focus on the algorithm suggested in [2], i.e. a potential-based method
for finding pure Nash equilibria (PNE) in such networks. A superficial
analysis of this algorithm gives an upper bound on its time which is
polynomial in n (the number of users) and the sum of their weights. This
bound can be exponential in n when some weights are superpolynomial.
We provide strong experimental evidence that this algorithm actually
converges to a PNE in strong polynomial time in n (independent of the
weights values). In addition we propose an initial allocation of users
to paths that dramatically accelerates this algorithm, compared to an
arbitrary initial allocation. A by-product of our research is the discovery
of a weighted potential function when link delays are exponential to their
loads. This asserts the existence of PNE for these delay functions and
extends the result of

Abstract: Data collection is usually performed in wireless sensor networks by the sensors
relaying data towards a static control center (sink). Motivated by important
applications (mostly related to ambient intelligence and remote monitoring)
and as a first step towards introducing mobility, we propose the basic
idea of having a sink moving in the network area and collecting
data from sensors. We propose four characteristic mobility patterns
for the sink along with different data collection strategies. Through a
detailed simulation study, we evaluate several important performance properties of
each approach. Our findings demonstrate that by taking advantage
of the sink's mobility and shifting work from sensors to the powerful sink,
we can significantly reduce the energy spent in relaying traffic and thus greatly
extend the lifetime of the network.

Abstract: Intuitively, Braess’s paradox states that destroying a part of a network may improve the common latency of selfish flows at Nash equilibrium. Such a paradox is a pervasive phenomenon in real-world networks. Any administrator who wants to improve equilibrium delays in selfish networks, is facing some basic questions:
– Is the network paradox-ridden?
– How can we delete some edges to optimize equilibrium flow delays?
– How can we modify edge latencies to optimize equilibrium flow delays?
Unfortunately, such questions lead to View the MathML sourceNP-hard problems in general. In this work, we impose some natural restrictions on our networks, e.g. we assume strictly increasing linear latencies. Our target is to formulate efficient algorithms for the three questions above. We manage to provide:
– A polynomial-time algorithm that decides if a network is paradox-ridden, when latencies are linear and strictly increasing.
– A reduction of the problem of deciding if a network with (arbitrary) linear latencies is paradox-ridden to the problem of generating all optimal basic feasible solutions of a Linear Program that describes the optimal traffic allocations to the edges with constant latency.
– An algorithm for finding a subnetwork that is almost optimal wrt equilibrium latency. Our algorithm is subexponential when the number of paths is polynomial and each path is of polylogarithmic length.
– A polynomial-time algorithm for the problem of finding the best subnetwork which outperforms any known approximation for the case of strictly increasing linear latencies.
– A polynomial-time method that turns the optimal flow into a Nash flow by deleting the edges not used by the optimal flow, and performing minimal modifications on the latencies of the remaining ones.
Our results provide a deeper understanding of the computational complexity of recognizing the most severe manifestations of Braess’s paradox, and our techniques show novel ways of using the probabilistic method and of exploiting convex separable quadratic programs.

Abstract: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)
has recently been proposed as a modulation technique for optical networks, because of its good spectral efficiency, flexibility, and tolerance to impairments. We consider the planning problem of an OFDM optical network, where we are given a traffic matrix that includes the requested transmission rates of the connections to be served. Connections are provisioned for their requested rate by elastically allocating spectrum using a variable number of OFDM subcarriers and choosing an appropriate modulation level, taking into account the transmission distance. We introduce the Routing, Modulation Level and Spectrum Allocation (RMLSA) problem, as opposed to the typical Routing and Wavelength Assignment (RWA) problem of traditional WDM networks, prove that is also NP-complete and present various algorithms to solve it. We start by presenting an optimal ILP RMLSA algorithm that minimizes the spectrum used to serve the traffic matrix, and also present a decomposition method that breaks RMLSA into its two
substituent subproblems, namely, (i) routing and modulation level, and (ii) spectrum allocation (RML+SA), and solves them sequentially. We also propose a heuristic algorithm that serves connections one-by-one and use it to solve the planning problem by sequentially serving all the connections in the traffic matrix. In the sequential algorithm, we investigate two policies for defining the order in which connections are considered. We also use a simulated annealing meta-heuristic to obtain even better orderings. We examine the performance of the proposed algorithms through simulation experiments and evaluate the spectrum utilization benefits that can be obtained by utilizing OFDM elastic bandwidth allocation, when compared to a traditional WDM network.

Abstract: A fundamental approach in finding efficiently best routes or optimal itineraries in traffic information
systems is to reduce the search space (part of graph visited) of the most commonly used
shortest path routine (Dijkstra˘s algorithm) on a suitably defined graph. We investigate reduction
of the search space while simultaneously retaining data structures, created during a preprocessing
phase, of size linear (i.e., optimal) to the size of the graph. We show that the search space of
Dijkstra˘s algorithm can be significantly reduced by extracting geometric information from a given
layout of the graph and by encapsulating precomputed shortest-path information in resulted geometric
objects (containers). We present an extensive experimental study comparing the impact of
different types of geometric containers using test data from real-world trafficnetworks. We also
present new algorithms as well as an empirical study for the dynamic case of this problem, where
edge weights are subject to change and the geometric containers have to be updated and show that
our new methods are two to three times faster than recomputing everything from scratch. Finally,
in an appendix, we discuss the software framework that we developed to realize the implementations
of all of our variants of Dijkstra˘s algorithm. Such a framework is not trivial to achieve as our
goal was to maintain a common code base that is, at the same time, small, efficient, and flexible,
as we wanted to enhance and combine several variants in any possible way.

Abstract: In translucent (or managed reach) WDM optical
networks, regenerators are employed at specific nodes. Some of
the connections in such networks are routed transparently, while
others have to go through a sequence of 3R regenerators that serve
as “refueling stations” to restore their quality of transmission
(QoT). We extend an online multicost algorithm for transparent
networks presented in our previous study [1], to obtain an IA-RWA
algorithm that works in translucent networks and makes use,
when required, of the regenerators present at certain locations
of the network. To characterize a path, the algorithm uses a
multicost formulation with several cost parameters, including the
set of available wavelengths, the length of the path, the number of
regenerators used, and noise variance parameters that account for
the physical layer impairments. Given a new connection request
and the current utilization state of the network, the algorithm calculates
a set of non dominated candidate paths, meaning that any
path in this set is not inferior with respect to all cost parameters
than any other path. This set consists of all the cost-effective (in
terms of the domination relation) and feasible (in terms of QoT)
lightpaths for the given source-destination pair, including all the
possible combinations for the utilization of available regenerators
of the network. An optimization function or policy is then applied
to this set in order to select the optimal lightpath. Different optimization
policies correspond to different IA-RWA algorithms.
We propose and evaluate several optimization policies, such as the
most used wavelength, the best quality of transmission, the least
regeneration usage, or a combination of these rules. Our results
indicate that in a translucent network the employed IA-RWA
algorithm has to consider all problem parameters, namely, the
QoT of the lightpaths, the utilization of wavelengths and the
availability of regenerators, to efficiently serve the online traffic.

Abstract: Flow control is the main technique currently used to prevent some of the ordered traffic from entering a communication network, and to avoid congestion. A challenging aspect of flow control is how to treat all sessions "fairly " when it is necessary to turn traffic away from the network. In this work, we show how to extend the theory of max-min fair flow control to the case where priorities are assigned to different varieties of traffic, which are sensitive to traffic levels. We examine priorities expressible in the general form of increasing functions of rates, considering yet in combination the more elaborative case with unescapable upper and lower bounds on rates of traffic sessions. We offer optimal, priority bottleneck algorithms, which iteratively adjust the session rates in order to meet a new condition of max-min fairness under priorities and rate bounds. In our setting, which is realistic for today's technology of guaranteed quality of service, traffic may be turned away not only to avoid congestion, but also to respect particular minimum requirements on bandwidth. Moreover, we establish lower bounds on the competitiveness of network-oblivious schemes compared to optimal schemes with complete knowledge of network structure. Our theory extends significantly the classical theory of max-min fair flow control [2]. Moreover, our results on rejected traffic are fundamentally different from those related to call control and bandwidth allocation, since not only do we wish to optimize the number and rates of accepted sessions, but we also require priority fairness.

Abstract: We provide an improved FPTAS for multiobjective shortest paths—a fundamental (NP-hard) problem in multiobjective optimization—along with a new generic method for obtaining FPTAS to any multiobjective optimization problem with non-linear objectives. We show how these results can be used to obtain better approximate solutions to three related problems, multiobjective constrained [optimal] path and non-additive shortest path, that have important applications in QoS routing and in traffic optimization. We also show how to obtain a FPTAS to a natural generalization of the weighted multicommodity flow problem with elastic demands and values that models several realistic scenarios in transportation and communication networks.

Abstract: Geographic routing scales well in sensor networks, mainly
due to its stateless nature. Still, most of the algorithms are
concerned with finding some path, while the optimality of
the path is difficult to achieve. In this paper we are presenting
a novel geographic routing algorithm with obstacle
avoidance properties. It aims at finding the optimal path
from a source to a destination when some areas of the network
are unavailable for routing due to low local density or
obstacle presence. It locally and gradually with time (but,
as we show, quite fast) evaluates and updates the suitability
of the previously used paths and ignores non optimal paths
for further routing. By means of extensive simulations, we
are comparing its performance to existing state of the art
protocols, showing that it performs much better in terms of
path length thus minimizing latency, space, overall traffic
and energy consumption.

Abstract: We propose new burst assembly schemes and fast reservation (FR) protocols for Optical Burst Switched (OBS) networks that are based on traffic prediction. The burst assembly schemes aim at minimizing (for a given burst size) the average delay of the packets incurred during the burst assembly process, while the fast reservation protocols aim at further reducing the end-to-end delay of the data bursts. The burst assembly techniques use a linear prediction filter to estimate the number of packet arrivals at the ingress node in the following interval, and launch a new burst into the network when a certain criterion, different for each proposed scheme, is met. The fast reservation protocols use prediction filters to estimate the expected length of the burst and the time needed for the burst assembly process to complete. A Burst Header Packet (BHP) packet carrying these estimates is sent before the burst is completed, in order to reserve bandwidth at intermediate nodes for the time interval the burst is expected to pass from these nodes. Reducing the packet aggregation delay and the time required to perform the reservations, reduces the total time needed for a packet to be transported over an OBS network and is especially important for real-time applications. We evaluate the performance of the proposed burst assembly schemes and show that a number of them outperform the previously proposed timer-based, length-based and average delay-based burst assembly schemes. We also look at the performance of the fast reservation (FR) protocols in terms of the probability of successfully establishing the reservations required to transport the burst.

Abstract: We consider the offline version of the routing and
wavelength assignment (RWA) problem in transparent all-optical
networks. In such networks and in the absence of regenerators,
the signal quality of transmission degrades due to physical layer
impairments. Because of certain physical effects, routing choices
made for one lightpath affect and are affected by the choices made
for the other lightpaths. This interference among the lightpaths
is particularly difficult to formulate in an offline algorithm since,
in this version of the problem, we start without any established
connections and the utilization of lightpaths are the variables of
the problem.We initially present an algorithm for solving the pure
(without impairments) RWA problem based on a LP-relaxation
formulation that tends to yield integer solutions. Then, we extend
this algorithm and present two impairment-aware (IA) RWA algorithms
that account for the interference among lightpaths in their
formulation. The first algorithm takes the physical layer indirectly
into account by limiting the impairment-generating sources. The
second algorithm uses noise variance-related parameters to directly
account for the most important physical impairments. The
objective of the resulting cross-layer optimization problem is not
only to serve the connections using a small number of wavelengths
(network layer objective), but also to select lightpaths that have
acceptable quality of transmission (physical layer objective).
Simulations experiments using realistic network, physical layer,
and traffic parameters indicate that the proposed algorithms can
solve real problems within acceptable time.

Abstract: We propose and evaluate an impairment-aware multi-parametric routing and wavelength assignment algorithm for online traffic in transparent optical networks. In such networks the signal quality of transmission degrades due to physical layer impairments. In the multiparametric approach, a vector of cost parameters is assigned to each link, from which the cost vectors of candidate lightpaths are calculated. In the proposed scheme the cost vector includes impairment generating source parameters, such as the path length, the number of hops, the number of crosstalk sources and other inter-lightpath interfering parameters, so as to indirectly account for the physical layer effects. For a requested connection the algorithm calculates a set of candidate lightpaths, whose quality of transmission is validated using a function that combines the impairment generating parameters. For selecting the lightpath we propose and evaluate various optimization functions that correspond to different IA-RWA algorithms. Our performance results indicate that the proposed algorithms utilize efficiently the available resources and minimize the total accumulated signal degradation on the selected lightpaths, while having low execution times.

Abstract: In this paper, we demonstrate optical transparency
in packet formatting and networktraffic offered by all-optical
switching devices. Exploiting the bitwise processing capabilities
of these “optical transistors,” simple optical circuits are designed
verifying the independency to packet length, synchronization
and packet-to-packet power fluctuations. Devices with these attributes
are key elements for achieving network flexibility, fine
granularity and efficient bandwidth-on-demand use. To this end, a
header/payload separation circuit operating with IP-like packets,
a clock and data recovery circuit handling asynchronous packets
and a burst-mode receiver for bursty traffic are presented. These
network subsystems can find application in future high capacity
data-centric photonic packet switched networks.

Abstract: We present a detailed performance evaluation of a
hybrid optical switching architecture called Overspill Routing in
Optical Networks (ORION). The ORION architecture combines
wavelength and (electronic) packet switching, so as to obtain the
advantages of both switching paradigms. We have developed an
extensive network simulator where the basic features of the
ORION architecture were modeled, including suitable loadvarying
sources and edge/core node architectures. Various aspects
of the ORION architecture were studied including the routing
policies used (i.e. once ORION always ORION and lightpath reentry)
and the various options available for the buffer
architecture. The complete network study shows that ORION can
absorb temporary traffic overloads, as intended, provided
sufficient buffering is present.

Abstract: This research attempts a first step towards investigating the aspect of radiation awareness in environments with abundant heterogeneous wireless networking. We call radiation at a point of a 3D wireless network the total amount of electromagnetic quantity the point is exposed to, our definition incorporates the effect of topology as well as the time domain, data traffic and environment aspects. Even if the impact of radiation to human health remains largely unexplored and controversial, we believe it is worth trying to understand and control. We first analyze radiation in well known topologies (random and grids), randomness is meant to capture not only node placement but also uncertainty of the wireless propagation model. This initial understanding of how radiation adds (over space and time) can be useful in network design, to reduce health risks. We then focus on the minimum radiation path problem of finding the lowest radiation trajectory of a person moving from a source to a destination point of the network region. We propose three heuristics which provide low radiation paths while keeping path length low, one heuristic gets in fact quite close to the offline solution we compute by a shortest path algorithm. Finally, we investigate the interesting impact on the heuristics' performance of diverse node mobility.

Abstract: This paper presents a summary of Optical Burst Switching (OBS) research within the VI framework program e-Photon/ONe network of excellence. The paper includes network aspects such as routing techniques, resilience and contention resolution, together with burst switch architectures. On the other hand, we also discuss traffic analysis issues, Quality of Service (QoS) schemes, TCP/IP over OBS and physical layer aspects for OBS.

Abstract: This paper presents a summary of Optical Burst Switching (OBS) research within the VI framework program e-Photon/ONe
network of excellence. The paper includes network aspects such as routing techniques, resilience and contention resolution, together
with burst switch architectures. On the other hand, we also discuss traffic analysis issues, Quality of Service (QoS) schemes, TCP/IP
over OBS and physical layer aspects for OBS.

Abstract: Braess’s paradox states that removing a part of a network may im-
prove the players’ latency at equilibrium. In this work, we study the approxima-
bility of the best subnetwork problem for the class of random
G
n;p
instances
proven prone to Braess’s paradox by (Roughgarden and Valiant, RSA 2010) and
(Chung and Young, WINE 2010). Our main contribution is a polynomial-time
approximation-preserving reduction of the best subnetwork problem for such in-
stances to the corresponding problem in a simplified network where all neighbors
of
s
and
t
are directly connected by
0
latency edges. Building on this, we obtain
an approximation scheme that for any constant
" >
0
and with high probabil-
ity, computes a subnetwork and an
"
-Nash flow with maximum latency at most
(1+
"
)
L
+
"
, where
L
is the equilibrium latency of the best subnetwork. Our ap-
proximation scheme runs in polynomial time if the random network has average
degree
O
(poly(ln
n
))
and the traffic rate is
O
(poly(lnln
n
))
, and in quasipoly-
nomial time for average degrees up to
o
(
n
)
and traffic rates of
O
(poly(ln
n
))
.

Abstract: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)
has been recently proposed as a modulation technique for optical
networks, due to its good spectral efficiency and impairment
tolerance. Optical OFDM is much more flexible compared to
traditional WDM systems, enabling elastic bandwidth
transmissions. We consider the planning problem of an OFDMbased optical network where we are given a traffic matrix that
includes the requested transmission rates of the connections to be
served. Connections are provisioned for their requested rate by
elastically allocating spectrum using a variable number of OFDM
subcarriers. We introduce the Routing and Spectrum Allocation
(RSA) problem, as opposed to the typical Routing and
Wavelength Assignment (RWA) problem of traditional WDM
networks, and present various algorithms to solve the RSA. We
start by presenting an optimal ILP RSA algorithm that minimizes
the spectrum used to serve the traffic matrix, and also present a
decomposition method that breaks RSA into two substituent
subproblems, namely, (i) routing and (ii) spectrum allocation
(R+SA) and solves them sequentially. We also propose a heuristic
algorithm that serves connections one-by-one and use it to solve
the planning problem by sequentially serving all traffic matrix
connections. To feed the sequential algorithm, two ordering
policies are proposed; a simulated annealing meta-heuristic is also
proposed to obtain even better orderings. Our results indicate
that the proposed sequential heuristic with appropriate ordering
yields close to optimal solutions in low running times.

Abstract: In wireless sensor networks data propagation is usually
performed by sensors transmitting data towards a static control center (sink). Inspired by important applications (mostly related to ambient intelligence) and as a first step towards introducing mobility, we propose the idea of having a sink moving in the network area and collecting data from sensors. We propose four characteristic mobility patterns for the sink along with different data collection strategies. Through a detailed simulation study, we evaluate several important performance properties of each protocol. Our findings demonstrate that by taking advantage of the sink's mobility, we can significantly reduce the energy spent in relaying traffic and thus greatly extend the lifetime of the network.

Abstract: We study computational and coordination efficiency issues of
Nash equilibria in symmetric network congestion games. We first propose
a simple and natural greedy method that computes a pure Nash equilibrium
with respect to traffic congestion in a network. In this algorithm
each user plays only once and allocates her traffic to a path selected via
a shortest path computation. We then show that this algorithm works
for series-parallel networks when users are identical or when users are of
varying demands but have the same best response strategy for any initial
networktraffic. We also give constructions where the algorithm fails if
either the above condition is violated (even for series-parallel networks)
or the network is not series-parallel (even for identical users). Thus, we
essentially indicate the limits of the applicability of this greedy approach.
We also study the price of anarchy for the objective of maximum
latency. We prove that for any network of m uniformly related links and
for identical users, the price of anarchy is {\`E}( logm
log logm).

Abstract: The Greek School Network (GSN) is a closed nationwide
educational network that offers advanced telematic and
networking services to all primary/secondary education schools
and administration offices in Greece. The primary objective of
GSN is the provisioning of a network infrastructure for the interconnection
of school PC laboratories so that modern educational
methods and pedagogical models can be applied to the school
community. GSN has scaled in size, has reached maturity, and
is currently delivering a wide range of network and telematic
services to its users. The emerging power of open-source software
provides a sound technological basis for building cutting-edge
services, capable of meeting internal administrative and monitoring
needs, and modern pedagogical requirements for tools and
services. The current paper presents an overview of GSN and an
evaluation of its services based on the opinions of its users, and on
service utilization and traffic measurement statistics. The paper
reaches the conclusion that open-source solutions provide a sound
technological platform that can cover, to a great extent, the needs
for advanced educational services of the school community.

Abstract: We study the problem of routing traffic through a congested network. We focus on the simplest case of a network consisting of m parallel links. We assume a collection of n network users; each user employs a mixed strategy, which is a probability distribution over links, to control the shipping of its own assigned traffic. Given a capacity for each link specifying the rate at which the link processes traffic, the objective is to route traffic so that the maximum (over all links) latency is minimized. We consider both uniform and arbitrary link capacities. How much decrease in global performace is necessary due to the absence of some central authority to regulate networktraffic and implement an optimal assignment of traffic to links? We investigate this fundamental question in the context of Nash equilibria for such a system, where each network user selfishly routes its traffic only on those links available to it that minimize its expected latency cost, given the network congestion caused by the other users. We use the Coordination Ratio, originally defined by Koutsoupias and Papadimitriou, as a measure of the cost of lack of coordination among the users; roughly speaking, the Coordination Ratio is the ratio of the expectation of the maximum (over all links) latency in the worst possible Nash equilibrium, over the least possible maximum latency had global regulation been available. Our chief instrument is a set of combinatorial Minimum Expected Latency Cost Equations, one per user, that characterize the Nash equilibria of this system. These are linear equations in the minimum expected latency costs, involving the user traffics, the link capacities, and the routing pattern determined by the mixed strategies. In turn, we solve these equations in the case of fully mixed strategies, where each user assigns its traffic with a strictly positive probability to every link, to derive the first existence and uniqueness results for fully mixed Nash equilibria in this setting. Through a thorough analysis and characterization of fully mixed Nash equilibria, we obtain tight upper bounds of no worse than O(ln n/ln ln n) on the Coordination Ratio for (i) the case of uniform capacities and arbitrary traffics and (ii) the case of arbitrary capacities and identical traffics.

Abstract: In this work, we study the combinatorial structure and the
computational complexity of Nash equilibria for a certain game that
models selfish routing over a network consisting of m parallel links. We
assume a collection of n users, each employing a mixed strategy, which
is a probability distribution over links, to control the routing of its own
assigned traffic. In a Nash equilibrium, each user selfishly routes its traffic
on those links that minimize its expected latency cost, given the network
congestion caused by the other users. The social cost of a Nash equilibrium
is the expectation, over all random choices of the users, of the
maximum, over all links, latency through a link.
We embark on a systematic study of several algorithmic problems related
to the computation of Nash equilibria for the selfish routing game we consider.
In a nutshell, these problems relate to deciding the existence of a
Nash equilibrium, constructing a Nash equilibrium with given support
characteristics, constructing the worst Nash equilibrium (the one with
maximum social cost), constructing the best Nash equilibrium (the one
with minimum social cost), or computing the social cost of a (given) Nash
equilibrium. Our work provides a comprehensive collection of efficient algorithms,
hardness results (both as NP-hardness and #P-completeness
results), and structural results for these algorithmic problems. Our results
span and contrast a wide range of assumptions on the syntax of the
Nash equilibria and on the parameters of the system.

Abstract: Digital optical logic circuits capable of performing bit-wise signal processing are critical building blocks for the realization of future high-speed packet-switched networks. In this paper, we present recent advances in all-optical processing circuits and examine the potential of their integration into a system environment. On this concept, we demonstrate serial all-optical Boolean AND/XOR logic at 20 Gb/s and a novel all-optical packet clock recovery circuit, with low capturing time, suitable for burst-mode traffic. The circuits use the semiconductor-based ultrafast nonlinear interferometer (UNI) as the nonlinear switching element. We also present the integration of these circuits in a more complex unit that performs header and payload separation from short synchronous data packets at 10 Gb/s. Finally, we discuss a method to realize a novel packet scheduling switch architecture, which guarantees lossless communication for specific traffic burstiness constraints, using these logic units.

Abstract: In this paper, we review recent advances in ultrafast optical time-domain technology with emphasis on the use in optical packet switching. In this respect, several key building blocks, including high-rate laser sources applicable to any time-division-multiplexing (TDM) application, optical logic circuits for bitwise processing, and clock-recovery circuits for timing synchronization with both synchronous and asynchronous data traffic, are described in detail. The circuits take advantage of the ultrafast nonlinear transfer function of semiconductor-based devices to operate successfully at rates beyond 10 Gb/s. We also demonstrate two more complex circuits-a header extraction unit and an exchange-bypass switch-operating at 10 Gb/s. These two units are key blocks for any general-purpose packet routing/switching application. Finally, we discuss the system perspective of all these modules and propose their possible incorporation in a packet switch architecture to provide low-level but high-speed functionalities. The goal is to perform as many operations as possible in the optical domain to increase node throughput and to alleviate the network from unwanted and expensive optical-electrical-optical conversions.

Abstract: A Nash equilibrium of a routing network represents a stable state of the network where no user finds it beneficial to unilaterally deviate from its routing strategy. In this work, we investigate the structure of such equilibria within the context of a certain game that models selfish routing for a set of n users each shipping its traffic over a network consisting of m parallel links. In particular, we are interested in identifying the worst-case Nash equilibrium – the one that maximizes social cost. Worst-case Nash equilibria were first introduced and studied in the pioneering work of Koutsoupias and Papadimitriou [9].
More specifically, we continue the study of the Conjecture of the Fully Mixed Nash Equilibrium, henceforth abbreviated as FMNE Conjecture, which asserts that the fully mixed Nash equilibrium, when existing, is the worst-case Nash equilibrium. (In the fully mixed Nash equilibrium, the mixed strategy of each user assigns (strictly) positive probability to every link.) We report substantial progress towards identifying the validity, methodologies to establish, and limitations of, the FMNE Conjecture.