Abstract: In this work we study the important problem of colouring squares of planar graphs (SQPG). We design and implement two new algorithms that colour in a different way SQPG. We call these algorithms MDsatur and RC. We have also implemented and experimentally evaluated the performance of most of the known approximation colouring algorithms for SQPG [14, 6, 4, 10]. We compare the quality of the colourings achieved by these algorithms, with the colourings obtained by our algorithms and with the results obtained from two well-known greedy colouring heuristics. The heuristics are mainly used for comparison reasons and unexpectedly give very good results. Our algorithm MDsatur outperforms the known algorithms as shown by the extensive experiments we have carried out.
The planar graph instances whose squares are used in our experiments are “non-extremal” graphs obtained by LEDA and hard colourable graph instances that we construct.
The most interesting conclusions of our experimental study are:
1) all colouring algorithms considered here have almost optimal performance on the squares of “non-extremal” planar graphs. 2) all known colouring algorithms especially designed for colouring SQPG, give significantly better results, even on hard to colour graphs, when the vertices of the input graph are randomly named. On the other hand, the performance of our algorithm, MDsatur, becomes worse in this case, however it still has the best performance compared to the others. MDsatur colours the tested graphs with 1.1 OPT colours in most of the cases, even on hard instances, where OPT denotes the number of colours in an optimal colouring. 3) we construct worst case instances for the algorithm of Fotakis el al. [6], which show that its theoretical analysis is tight.

Abstract: In this paper we present a new approximation algorithm for
the Minimum Energy Broadcast Routing (MEBR) problem in ad hoc
wireless networks that has exponentially better approximation factor
than the well-known Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) heuristic. Namely,
for any instance where a minimum spanning tree of the set of stations
is guaranteed to cost at most ½ times the cost of an optimal solution
for MEBR, we prove that our algorithm achieves an approximation ra-
tio bounded by 2 ln ½ ¡ 2 ln 2 + 2. This result is particularly relevant for
its consequences on Euclidean instances where we signi¯cantly improve
previous results.

Abstract: Urban road networks are represented as directed graphs, accompanied by a metric which assigns cost functions (rather than scalars) to the arcs, e.g. representing time-dependent arc-traversal-times. In this work, we present oracles for providing time-dependent min-cost route plans, and conduct their experimental evaluation on a real-world data set (city of Berlin). Our oracles are based on precomputing all landmark-to-vertex shortest travel-time functions, for properly selected landmark sets. The core of this preprocessing phase is based on a novel, quite efficient and simple oneto-all approximation method for creating approximations of shortest travel-time functions. We then propose three query algorithms, including a PTAS, to efficiently provide mincost route plan responses to arbitrary queries. Apart from the purely algorithmic challenges, we deal also with several
implementation details concerning the digestion of raw traffic data, and we provide heuristic improvements of both the preprocessing phase and the query algorithms. We conduct an extensive, comparative experimental study with all query algorithms and six landmark sets. Our results are quite encouraging, achieving remarkable speedups (at least by two orders of magnitude) and quite small approximation guarantees, over the time-dependent variant of Dijkstra¢s algorithm.

Abstract: The Team Orienteering Problem with Time Windows (TOPTW)
deals with deriving a number of tours comprising a subset of candidate
nodes (each associated with a \prot" value and a visiting time window)
so as to maximize the overall \prot", while respecting a specied time
span. TOPTW has been used as a reference model for the Tourist Trip
Design Problem (TTDP) in order to derive near-optimal multiple-day
tours for tourists visiting a destination featuring several points of inter-
est (POIs), taking into account a multitude of POI attributes. TOPTW
is an NP-hard problem and the most ecient known heuristic is based on
Iterated Local Search (ILS). However, ILS treats each POI separately;
hence it tends to overlook highly protable areas of POIs situated far
from the current location, considering them too time-expensive to visit.
We propose two cluster-based extensions to ILS addressing the afore-
mentioned weakness by grouping POIs on disjoint clusters (based on
geographical criteria), thereby making visits to such POIs more attrac-
tive. Our approaches improve on ILS with respect to solutions quality,
while executing at comparable time and reducing the frequency of overly
long transfers among POIs.

Abstract: We design and implement various algorithms for
solving the static RWA problem with the objective of minimizing
the maximum number of requested wavelengths based on LP
relaxation formulations. We present a link formulation, a path
formulation and a heuristic that breaks the problem in the two
constituent subproblems and solves them individually and
sequentially. The flow cost functions that are used in these
formulations result in providing integer optimal solutions despite
the absence of integrality constraints for a large subset of RWA
input instances, while also minimizing the total number of used
wavelengths. We present a random perturbation technique that is
shown to increase the number of instances for which we find
integer solutions, and we also present appropriate iterative fixing
and rounding methods to be used when the algorithms do not yield
integer solutions. We comment on the number of variables and
constraints these formulations require and perform extensive
simulations to compare their performance to that of a typical minmax
congestion formulation.

Abstract: This paper addresses stability issues in incremental induction of decision trees. Stability problems arise when an induction algorithm must revise a decision tree very often and oscillations between similar concepts decrease learning speed. We review a heuristic that solves this problem and subsequently employ asymptotic analysis to approximate the basic parameters related to the estimation of computational effort in incremental learning of decision trees. We then use these approximations to simplify the heuristic, we deliver insight into its amortizing behavior and argue how they can also speed-up its execution and enhance its applicability, also providing experimental evidence to support these claims.

Abstract: We call radiation at a point of a wireless network the total amount of electromagnetic quantity (energy or power density) the point is exposed to. The impact of radiation can be high and we believe it is worth studying and control; towards radiation aware wireless networking we take (for the first time in the study of this aspect) a distributed computing, algorithmic approach. We exemplify this line of research by focusing on sensor networks, studying the minimum radiation path problem of finding the lowest radiation trajectory of a person moving from a source to a destination point in the network region. For this problem, we sketch the main ideas behind a linear program that can provide a tight approximation of the optimal solution, and then we discuss three heuristics that can lead to low radiation paths. We also plan to investigate the impact of diverse node mobility to the heuristics' performance.

Abstract: The Time Dependent Team Orienteering Problem with Time Windows (TDTOPTW) can be used to model several real life problems. Among them, the route planning problem for tourists interested in visiting multiple points of interest (POIs) using public transport. The main objective of this problem is to select POIs that match tourist preferences, while taking into account a multitude of parameters and constraints and respecting the time available for sightseeing in a daily basis. TDTOPTW is NP-hard while almost the whole body of the related literature addresses the non time dependent version of the problem. The only TDTOPTW heuristic proposed so far is based on the assumption of periodic service schedules. Herein, we propose two efficient cluster-based heuristics for the TDTOPTW which yield high quality solutions, take into account time dependency in calculating travel times between POIs and make no assumption on periodic service schedules. The validation scenario for our prototyped algorithms included the metropolitan transit network and real POI sets compiled from Athens (Greece).

Abstract: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)
has recently been proposed as a modulation technique for optical networks, because of its good spectral efficiency, flexibility, and tolerance to impairments. We consider the planning problem of an OFDM optical network, where we are given a traffic matrix that includes the requested transmission rates of the connections to be served. Connections are provisioned for their requested rate by elastically allocating spectrum using a variable number of OFDM subcarriers and choosing an appropriate modulation level, taking into account the transmission distance. We introduce the Routing, Modulation Level and Spectrum Allocation (RMLSA) problem, as opposed to the typical Routing and Wavelength Assignment (RWA) problem of traditional WDM networks, prove that is also NP-complete and present various algorithms to solve it. We start by presenting an optimal ILP RMLSA algorithm that minimizes the spectrum used to serve the traffic matrix, and also present a decomposition method that breaks RMLSA into its two
substituent subproblems, namely, (i) routing and modulation level, and (ii) spectrum allocation (RML+SA), and solves them sequentially. We also propose a heuristic algorithm that serves connections one-by-one and use it to solve the planning problem by sequentially serving all the connections in the traffic matrix. In the sequential algorithm, we investigate two policies for defining the order in which connections are considered. We also use a simulated annealing meta-heuristic to obtain even better orderings. We examine the performance of the proposed algorithms through simulation experiments and evaluate the spectrum utilization benefits that can be obtained by utilizing OFDM elastic bandwidth allocation, when compared to a traditional WDM network.

Abstract: In this work we experimentally study the min order Radiocoloring problem (RCP) on Chordal, Split and Permutation graphs, which are three basic families of perfect graphs. This problem asks to find an assignment using the minimum number of colors to the vertices of a given graph G, so that each pair of vertices which are at distance at most two apart in G have different colors. RCP is an NP-Complete problem on chordal and split graphs [4]. For each of the three families, there are upper bounds or/and approximation algorithms known for minimum number of colors needed to radiocolor such a graph [4,10].
We design and implement radiocoloring heuristics for graphs of above families, which are based on the greedy heuristic. Also, for each one of the above families, we investigate whether there exists graph instances requiring a number of colors in order to be radiocolored, close to the best known upper bound for the family. Towards this goal, we present a number generators that produce graphs of the above families that require either (i) a large number of colors (compared to the best upper bound), in order to be radiocolored, called ldquoextremalrdquo graphs or (ii) a small number of colors, called ldquonon-extremalrdquoinstances. The experimental evaluation showed that random generated graph instances are in the most of the cases ldquonon-extremalrdquo graphs. Also, that greedy like heuristics performs very well in the most of the cases, especially for ldquonon-extremalrdquo graphs.

Abstract: One of the major problems algorithm designers usually face is to know in advance whether a proposed optimization algorithm is going to behave as planned, and if not, what changes are to be made to the way new solutions are examined so that the algorithm performs nicely. In this work we develop a methodology for differentiating good neighborhoods from bad ones. As a case study we consider the structure of the space of assignments for random 3-SAT formulas and we compare two neighborhoods, a simple and a more refined one that we already know the corresponding algorithm behaves extremely well. We give evidence that it is possible to tell in advance what neighborhood structure will give rise to a good search algorithm and we show how our methodology could have been used to discover some recent results on the structure of the SAT space of solutions. We use as a tool Go with the winners, an optimization heuristic that uses many particles that independently search the space of all possible solutions. By gathering statistics, we compare the combinatorial characteristics of the different neighborhoods and we show that there are certain features that make a neighborhood better than another, thus giving rise to good search algorithms.

Abstract: We present improved methods for computing a set of alternative source-to-destination routes
in road networks in the form of an alternative graph. The resulting alternative graphs are
characterized by minimum path overlap, small stretch factor, as well as low size and complexity.
Our approach improves upon a previous one by introducing a new pruning stage preceding any
other heuristic method and by introducing a new filtering and fine-tuning of two existing methods.
Our accompanying experimental study shows that the entire alternative graph can be computed
pretty fast even in continental size networks.

Abstract: In this paper we present a multicost algorithm for the joint
time scheduling of the communication and computation
resources that will be used by a task. The proposed
algorithm selects the computation resource to execute the
task, determines the path to route the input data, and finds
the starting times for the data transmission and the task
execution, performing advance reservations. We initially
present an optimal scheme of non-polynomial complexity
and by appropriately pruning the set of candidate paths we
also give a heuristic algorithm of polynomial complexity. We
evaluate the performance of our algorithm and compare it to
that of algorithms that handle only the computation or
communication part of the problem separately. We show that
in a Grid network where the tasks are CPU- and dataintensive
important performance benefits can be obtained by
jointly optimizing the use of the communication and
computation resources.

Abstract: A key problem in Grid networks is how to efficiently manage the available infrastructure, in order to
satisfy user requirements and maximize resource utilization. This is in large part influenced by the
algorithms responsible for the routing of data and the scheduling of tasks. In this paper,wepresent several
multi-cost algorithms for the joint scheduling of the communication and computation resources that
will be used by a Grid task. We propose a multi-cost scheme of polynomial complexity that performs
immediate reservations and selects the computation resource to execute the task and determines the
path to route the input data. Furthermore, we introduce multi-cost algorithms that perform advance
reservations and thus also find the starting times for the data transmission and the task execution. We
initially present an optimal scheme of non-polynomial complexity and by appropriately pruning the set
of candidate paths we also give a heuristic algorithm of polynomial complexity. Our performance results
indicate that in a Grid network in which tasks are either CPU- or data-intensive (or both), it is beneficial
for the scheduling algorithm to jointly consider the computational and communication problems. A
comparison between immediate and advance reservation schemes shows the trade-offs with respect to
task blocking probability, end-to-end delay and the complexity of the algorithms.

Abstract: The non-additive shortest path (NASP) problem asks for
finding an optimal path that minimizes a certain multi-attribute nonlinear
cost function. In this paper, we consider the case of a non-linear
convex and non-decreasing function on two attributes.We present an efficient
polynomial algorithm for solving a Lagrangian relaxation of NASP.
We also present an exact algorithm that is based on new heuristics we
introduce here, and conduct a comparative experimental study with synthetic
and real-world data that demonstrates the quality of our approach.

Abstract: We consider a fundamental problem, called QoS-aware Multicommodity Flow, for assessing robustness in transportation planning.
It constitutes a natural generalization of the weighted multicommodity
flow problem, where the demands and commodity values are elastic to
the Quality-of-Service (QoS) characteristics of the underlying network.
The problem is also fundamental in other domains beyond transportation
planning. In this work, we provide an extensive experimental study of
two FPTAS for the QoS-aware Multicommodity Flow Problem enhanced
with several heuristics, and show the superiority of a new heuristic we
introduce here.

Abstract: This research attempts a first step towards investigating the aspect of radiation awareness in environments with abundant heterogeneous wireless networking. We call radiation at a point of a 3D wireless network the total amount of electromagnetic quantity the point is exposed to, our definition incorporates the effect of topology as well as the time domain, data traffic and environment aspects. Even if the impact of radiation to human health remains largely unexplored and controversial, we believe it is worth trying to understand and control. We first analyze radiation in well known topologies (random and grids), randomness is meant to capture not only node placement but also uncertainty of the wireless propagation model. This initial understanding of how radiation adds (over space and time) can be useful in network design, to reduce health risks. We then focus on the minimum radiation path problem of finding the lowest radiation trajectory of a person moving from a source to a destination point of the network region. We propose three heuristics which provide low radiation paths while keeping path length low, one heuristic gets in fact quite close to the offline solution we compute by a shortest path algorithm. Finally, we investigate the interesting impact on the heuristics' performance of diverse node mobility.

Abstract: This research further investigates the recently introduced
(in [4]) paradigm of radiation awareness in ambient environments with abundant heterogeneous wireless networking
from a distributed computing perspective. We call radiation
at a point of a wireless network the total amount of electromagnetic quantity the point is exposed to; our denition incorporates the eect of topology as well as the time domain
and environment aspects. Even if the impact of radiation to
human health remains largely unexplored and controversial,
we believe it is worth trying to understand and control, in
a way that does not decrease much the quality of service
oered to users of the wireless network.
In particular, we here focus on the fundamental problem
of ecient data propagation in wireless sensor networks, try-
ing to keep latency low while maintaining at low levels the
radiation cumulated by wireless transmissions. We rst propose greedy and oblivious routing heuristics that are radiation aware. We then combine them with temporal back-o
schemes that use local properties of the network (e.g. number of neighbours, distance from sink) in order to spread" radiation in a spatio-temporal way. Our proposed radiation
aware routing heuristics succeed to keep radiation levels low,
while not increasing latency.

Abstract: In recent years there has been signi1cant interest in the study of random k-SAT formulae. For
a given set of n Boolean variables, let Bk denote the set of all possible disjunctions of k distinct,
non-complementary literals from its variables (k-clauses). A random k-SAT formula Fk (n;m) is
formed by selectinguniformly and independently m clauses from Bk and takingtheir conjunction.
Motivated by insights from statistical mechanics that suggest a possible relationship between the
?order? of phase transitions and computational complexity, Monasson and Zecchina (Phys. Rev.
E 56(2) (1997) 1357) proposed the random (2+p)-SAT model: for a given p ¸ [0; 1], a random
(2 + p)-SAT formula, F2+p(n;m), has m randomly chosen clauses over n variables, where pm
clauses are chosen from B3 and (1 − p)m from B2. Usingthe heuristic ?replica method? of
statistical mechanics, Monasson and Zecchina gave a number of non-rigorous predictions on the
behavior of random (2 + p)-SAT formulae. In this paper we give the 1rst rigorous results for
random (2 + p)-SAT, includingthe followingsurprisingfact: for p 6 2=5, with probability
1 − o(1), a random (2 + p)-SAT formula is satis1able i@ its 2-SAT subformula is satis1able.
That is, for p 6 2=5, random (2 + p)-SAT behaves like random 2-SAT.

Abstract: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)
has been recently proposed as a modulation technique for optical
networks, due to its good spectral efficiency and impairment
tolerance. Optical OFDM is much more flexible compared to
traditional WDM systems, enabling elastic bandwidth
transmissions. We consider the planning problem of an OFDMbased optical network where we are given a traffic matrix that
includes the requested transmission rates of the connections to be
served. Connections are provisioned for their requested rate by
elastically allocating spectrum using a variable number of OFDM
subcarriers. We introduce the Routing and Spectrum Allocation
(RSA) problem, as opposed to the typical Routing and
Wavelength Assignment (RWA) problem of traditional WDM
networks, and present various algorithms to solve the RSA. We
start by presenting an optimal ILP RSA algorithm that minimizes
the spectrum used to serve the traffic matrix, and also present a
decomposition method that breaks RSA into two substituent
subproblems, namely, (i) routing and (ii) spectrum allocation
(R+SA) and solves them sequentially. We also propose a heuristic
algorithm that serves connections one-by-one and use it to solve
the planning problem by sequentially serving all traffic matrix
connections. To feed the sequential algorithm, two ordering
policies are proposed; a simulated annealing meta-heuristic is also
proposed to obtain even better orderings. Our results indicate
that the proposed sequential heuristic with appropriate ordering
yields close to optimal solutions in low running times.

Abstract: On input a random 3-CNF formula of clauses-to-variables ratio r3 applies repeatedly
the following simple heuristic: Set to True a literal that appears in the maximum number of clauses,
irrespective of their size and the number of occurrences of the negation of the literal (ties are broken
randomly; 1-clauses when they appear get priority). We prove that for r3 < 3.42 this heuristic
succeeds with probability asymptotically bounded away from zero. Previously, heuristics of increasing
sophistication were shown to succeed for r3 < 3.26. We improve up to r3 < 3.52 by further exploiting
the degree of the negation of the evaluated to True literal.

Abstract: We consider optimal itinerary problems in time-table information systems supporting a vast number of on-line queries. We exhibit two important extensions of the time-dependent approach to model realistic versions of the Earliest Arrival and Minimum Number of Transfer problems, as well as of a combination of them, that could not be modeled by the original version of the time-dependent approach. We also provide heuristics that speed up implementations and present preliminary experimental results with real-world data.