Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks are by nature highly dynamic and communication between sensors is completely ad hoc, especially when mobiledevices are part of the setup. Numerous protocols and applications proposed for such networks
operate on the assumption that knowledge of the neighborhood is a priori available to all nodes. As a result, WSN deployments need to use or implement from scratch a neighborhood discovery mechanism. In this work we present a new protocol based on adaptive periodic beacon exchanges. We totally avoid continuous beaconing by adjusting the rate of broadcasts using the concept of consistency over the understanding of neighborhood that nearby devices share. We propose, implement and evaluate our adaptive neighborhood discovery protocol over our experimental testbed and using large scale simulations. Our results indicate that the
new protocol operates more eciently than existing reference implementations while it provides valid information to applications that use it. Extensive performance evaluation indicates that it successfully reduces generated network traffic by 90% and increases network lifetime by 20% compared to existing mechanisms that rely on continuous beaconing.
Abstract: Wireless sensor networks are comprised of a vast number of
ultra-small autonomous computing, communication and sensing devices,
with restricted energy and computing capabilities, that co-operate
to accomplish a large sensing task. Such networks can be very useful
in practice, e.g.~in the local monitoring of ambient conditions and
reporting them to a control center. In this paper we propose a
distributed group key establishment protocol that uses mobile agents
(software) and is particularly suitable for energy constrained,
dynamically evolving ad-hoc networks. Our approach totally avoids
the construction and the maintenance of a distributed structure that
reflects the topology of the network. Moreover, it trades-off
complex message exchanges by performing some amount of additional
local computations in order to be applicable at dense and dynamic
sensor networks. The extra computations are simple for the devices
to implement and are evenly distributed across the participants of
the network leading to good energy balance. We evaluate the
performance of our protocol in a simulated environment and compare
our results with existing group key establishment protocols. The
security of the protocol is based on the Diffie-Hellman problem and
we used in our experiments its elliptic curve analog. Our findings
basically indicate the feasibility of implementing our protocol in
real sensor network devices and highlight the advantages and
disadvantages of each approach given the available technology and
the corresponding efficiency (energy, time) criteria.
Abstract: We examine multi-player pervasive games that rely on the
use of ad-hoc mobile sensor networks. The unique feature in
such games is that players interact with each other and their
surrounding environment by using movement and presence
as a means of performing game-related actions, utilizing sen-
sor devices. We brie
y discuss the fundamental issues and
challenges related to these type of games and the scenar-
ios associated with them. We have also developed a frame-
work, called Fun in Numbers (FinN) that handles a number
of these issues, such as such as neighbors discovery, local-
ization, synchronization and delay-tolerant communication.
FinN is developed using Java and is based on a multilayer ar-
chitecture, which provides developers with a set of templates
and services for building and operating new games.
Abstract: We survey here some recent computational models for networks of tiny artifacts. In particular, we focus on networks consisting of artifacts with sensing capabilities. We first imagine the artifacts moving passively, that is, being mobile but unable to control their own movement. This leads us to the population protocol model of Angluin et al. (2004) . We survey this model and some of its recent enhancements. In particular, we also present the mediated population protocol model in which the interaction links are capable of storing states and the passively mobile machines model in which the finite state nature of the agents is relaxed and the agents become multitape Turing machines that use a restricted space. We next survey the sensor field model, a general model capturing some identifying characteristics of many sensor network˘s settings. A sensor field is composed of kinds of devices that can communicate one to the other and also to the environment through input/output data streams. We, finally, present simulation results between sensor fields and population protocols and analyze the capability of their variants to decide graph properties
Abstract: Here we survey various computational models for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The population protocol model (PP) considers networks of tiny mobile finite-state artifacts that can sense the environment and communicate in pairs to perform a computation. The mediated population protocol model (MPP) enhances the previous model by allowing the communication links to have a constant size buffer, providing more computational power. The graph decision MPP model (GDM) is a special case of MPP that focuses on the MPP's ability to decide graph properties of the network. Another direction towards enhancing the PP is followed by the PALOMA model in which the artifacts are no longer finite-state automata but Turing Machines of logarithmic memory in the population size. A different approach to modeling WSNs is the static synchronous sensor field model (SSSF) which describes devices communicating through a fixed communication graph and interacting with their environment via input and output data streams. In this survey, we present the computational capabilities of each model and provide directions for further research.
Abstract: Evaluating target tracking protocols for wireless sensor networks that can localize multiple mobiledevices, can be a very challenging task. Such protocols usually aim at minimizing communication overhead, data processing for the participating nodes, as well as delivering adequate tracking information of the mobile targets in a timely manner. Simulations on such protocols are performed using theoretical models that are based on unrealistic assumptions like the unit disk graph communication model, ideal network localization and perfect distance estimations. With these assumptions taken for granted, theoretical models claim various performance milestones that cannot be achieved in realistic conditions. In this paper we design a new localization protocol, where mobile assets can be tracked passively via software agents. We address the issues that hinder its performance due to the real environment conditions and provide a deployable protocol. The implementation, integration and experimentation of this new protocol and it's optimizations, were performed using the WISEBED framework. We apply our protocol in multiple indoors wireless sensor testbeds with multiple experimental scenarios to showcase scalability and trade-offs between network properties and configurable protocol parameters. By analysis of the real world experimental output, we present results that depict a more realistic view of the target tracking problem, regarding power consumption and the quality of tracking information. Finally we also conduct some very focused simulations to assess the scalability of our protocol in very large networks and multiple mobile assets.
Abstract: Wireless sensor networks are comprised of a vast number of devices, situated in an area of interest that self organize in a structureless network, in order to monitor/record/measure an environmental variable or phenomenon and subsequently to disseminate the data to the control center.
Here we present research focused on the development, simulation and evaluation of energy efficient algorithms, our basic goal is to minimize the energy consumption. Despite technology advances, the problem of energy use optimization remains valid since current and emerging hardware solutions fail to solve it.
We aim to reduce communication cost, by introducing novel techniques that facilitate the development of new algorithms. We investigated techniques of distributed adaptation of the operations of a protocol by using information available locally on every node, thus through local choices we improve overall performance. We propose techniques for collecting and exploiting limited local knowledge of the network conditions. In an energy efficient manner, we collect additional information which is used to achieve improvements such as forming energy efficient, low latency and fault tolerant paths to route data. We investigate techniques for managing mobility in networks where movement is a characteristic of the control center as well as the sensors. We examine methods for traversing and covering the network field based on probabilistic movement that uses local criteria to favor certain areas.
The algorithms we develop based on these techniques operate a) at low level managing devices, b) on the routing layer and c) network wide, achieving macroscopic behavior through local interactions. The algorithms are applied in network cases that differ in density, node distribution, available energy and also in fundamentally different models, such as under faults, with incremental node deployment and mobile nodes. In all these settings our techniques achieve significant gains, thus distinguishing their value as tools of algorithmic design.
Abstract: We here present Fun in Numbers (FinN), a framework for developing pervasive applications and interactive installations for entertainment and educational purposes. Using ad hoc mobile wireless sensor network nodes as the enabling devices, FinN allows for the quick prototyping of applications that utilize input from multiple physical sources (sensors and other means of interfacing), by offering a set of programming templates and services, such as topology discovery, localization and synchronization, that hide the underlying complexity. We present the target application domains of FinN, along with a set of multiplayer games and interactive installations. We describe the overall architecture of our platform
and discuss some key implementation issues of the application domains. Finally, we present the experience gained by deploying the applications developed with our platform.
Abstract: This work is an attempt to present and describe the design and implementation of a system for the cooperative multiplayer control of gaming and entertainment-related software, based on the use of mobiledevices with wireless networking capabilities. We are currently using wireless sensor networking devices as the enabling platform, and our prototype application is based on Google Earth�s integrated flight simulator.
Abstract: The energy balance property (i.e., all nodes having the same energy throughout the network evolution) contributes significantly (along with energy efficiency) to the maximization of the network lifespan and network connectivity. The problem of achieving energy balanced propagation is well studied in static networks, as it has attracted a lot of research attention.
Recent technological advances have enabled sensor devices to be attached to mobile entities of our every day life (e.g. smart-phones, cars, PDAs etc), thus introducing the formation of highly mobile sensor networks.
Inspired by the aforementioned applications, this work is (to the best of our knowledge) the first studying the energy balance property in wireless networks where the nodes are highly and dynamically mobile. In particular, in this paper we propose a new diverse mobility model which is easily parameterized and we also present a new protocol which tries to adaptively exploit the inherent node mobility in order to achieve energy balance in the network in an efficient way.
Abstract: Online and Realtime counting and estimating the cardinality of sets is highly desirable for a large variety of applications, representing a foundational block for the efficient deployment and access of emerging internet scale information systems. In this work we implement three well known duplicate
insensitive counting algorithms and evaluate their performance in a testbed of resource-limited commercial off-the-shelf hardware devices. We focus on devices that can be used in wireless mobile and sensor applications and evaluate the memory complexity, time complexity and absolute error of the algorithms under different realistic scenaria. Our findings indicate the suitability of each algorithm depending on the application characteristics.
Abstract: In the near future, it is reasonable to expect that new types of systems will appear, of massive scale, expansive and permeating their environment, of very heterogeneous nature, and operating in a constantly changing networked environment. We expect that most such systems will have the form of a very large society of unimpressive networked artefacts. Yet by cooperation, they will be organized in large societies to accomplish tasks that are difficult or beyond the capabilities of todays conventional centralized systems.
The Population Protocol model of Angluin et. al. introduced a novel approach towards the study of such systems by assuming that each artefact is an agent, so limited, that can be represented as a finite-state sensor of constant (O(1)) total storage capacity. Such agents are passively mobile and communicate in pairs using a low-power wireless signal. It has been proven that, although such systems consist of extremely limited, cheap and bulk-produced hardware devices, they are still capable of carrying out very useful nontrivial computations. Based on this approach we investigate many new intriguing directions.
Abstract: Fun in Numbers (FinN) is a platform for developing and playing mobile, locative and collaborative distributed games
using wireless sensors. Using FinN, a very large and diverse set of games can be enhanced, by maximizing the on-game
experience and collecting statistics for off-line, web-based view. At the same time the essence of such games remains the
same: fun in large numbers, in every place and at any time. FinN is implemented using a combination of JAVA Standard
and Mobile editions, while on the hardware part we use wireless sensor devices, called Sun SPOTs. In the future, mobile
phones that have some kind of sensors embedded, or other custom devices can be used for the same purpose. We report a
number of examples of games created with FinN and briefly present the architecture of our platform.
Abstract: In this work we discuss Fun in Numbers, a software platform for implementing multiplayer games and interactive installations, that are based on the use of ad hoc mobile sensing devices. We utilize a detailed log of a three-day long public showcase as a basis to discuss the implementation issues related to a set of games and installations, which are examples of this unique category of applications, utilizing a blend of technologies. We discuss their fundamental concepts and features, also arguing that they have many aspects and potential uses. The architecture of the platform and implementation details are highlighted in this work, along with detailed descriptions of the protocols used. Our experiments shed light on a number of key issues, such as network scaling and real-time performance, and we provide experiments regarding cross-layer software issues. We additionally provide data showing that such games and installations can be efficiently supported by our platform, with as many as 50 concurrent players in the same physical space. These results are backed up by a user evaluation study from a large sample of 136 visitors, which shows that such applications can be seriously fun.
Abstract: In this book chapter we will consider key establishment protocols for wireless sensor networks.
Several protocols have been proposed in the literature for the establishment of a shared group key for wired networks.
The choice of a protocol depends whether the key is established by one of the participants (and then transported to the other(s)) or agreed among the participants, and on the underlying cryptographic mechanisms (symmetric or asymmetric). Clearly, the design of key establishment protocols for sensor networks must deal with different problems and challenges that do not exist in wired networks. To name a few, wireless links are particularly vulnerable to eavesdropping, and that sensor devices can be captured (and the secrets they contain can be compromised); in many upcoming wireless sensor networks, nodes cannot rely on the presence of an online trusted server (whereas most standardized authentication and key establishment protocols do rely on such a server).
In particular, we will consider five distributed group key establishment protocols. Each of these protocols applies a different algorithmic technique that makes it more suitable for (i) static sensor networks, (ii) sensor networks where nodes enter sleep mode (i.e. dynamic, with low rate of updates on the connectivity graph) and (iii) fully dynamic networks where nodes may even be mobile. On the other hand, the common factor for all five protocols is that they can be applied in dynamic groups (where members can be excluded or added) and provide forward and backward secrecy. All these protocols are based on the Diffie-Hellman key exchange algorithm and constitute natural extensions of it in the multiparty case.
Abstract: The possibilities offered by utilizing sensors and pervasive computing technologies for creating large-scale multiplayer games are discussed in this chapter. Such game installations constitute a new social form of play taking place in public spaces. A main characteristic is the need to scale to a large number of users and engage players located simultaneously in dispersed areas, thus connected both on a local and Internet level. Fun in Numbers is a platform for developing and playing mobile, locative and collaborative distributed games and interactive installations, based on the participation of large numbers of people and their movement in the physical space. Players interact with each other using a wide range of hardware devices that are either generic (smartphones) or specific (sensor devices A set of related fundamental issues drawn upon the experience from several public events, where the FinN platform supported as many as 50 local users at the same time, is hereby presented.
Abstract: We present here, Fun in Numbers, a framework for developing multiplayer pervasive games that rely on the use of ad hoc mobile sensor networks. The unique feature in such games is that players interact with each other and their surrounding environment by using movement and presence as a means of performing game-related actions, utilizing sensor devices. We present the fundamental issues and challenges related to these type of games and the scenarios associated with them is provided. Our framework is developed using Java and is based on a multilayer architecture, which provides developers with a set of templates and services for building and operating new games. Our framework handles a number of challenging fundamental and practical issues, such as synchronization, network congestion, delay-tolerant communication and neighbors discovery. We also present our platform and identify issues that arise in pervasive games which utilize sensor network nodes. The implemented games show how to use non-conventional user interface methods to breathe new life into familiar concepts, like the multiplayer games played out in open space.
Abstract: In this work, we explore context-aware application scenarios that become possible utilizing semantically-rich information derived from real-world mobility and presence traces. Traces produced by people carrying personal mobiledevices, capturing social and contextual interactions, serve as enables for Future Internet applications. We discuss the fundamental concepts, technical issues and related research challenges. We propose a reference architecture for setting up a system that collects such traces in a Smart City environment. We present the algorithms used to process the traces and infer interactions and interests for the observed populations. We conduct two 3-day trial deployments: one in an office environment and the other in the context of a Smart Conference application. We discuss our findings regarding the system's capability to track interactions and the overall efficacy of the application.
Abstract: In this work, we discuss multiplayer pervasive
games that rely on the use of ad hoc mobile sensor networks.
The unique feature in such games is that players interact
with each other and their surrounding environment by using
movement and presence as a means of performing game-related
actions, utilizing sensor devices. We discuss the fundamental
issues and challenges related to these type of games and the
scenarios associated with them. We also present and evaluate
an example of such a game, called the “Hot Potato”, developed
using the Sun SPOT hardware platform. We provide a set of
experimental results, so as to both evaluate our implementation
and also to identify issues that arise in pervasive games which
utilize sensor network nodes, which show that there is great
potential in this type of games.
Abstract: In this work we present two mobile, locative and collaborative distributed games that are played using wireless sensor
devices. We brieﬂy present the architecture of the two games
and demonstrate their capabilities. The key characteristic of
these games is that players interact with each other and their
surrounding environment by moving, running and gesturing as a mean to perform game related actions, using sensor devices. We demonstrate our system by implementing it using
a combination of JAVA Standard and Mobile editions.