Abstract: The management of Grid resources requires scheduling of both computation and communication tasks at various levels. In this study, we consider the two constituent sub-problems of Grid scheduling, namely: (i) the scheduling of computation tasks to processing resources and (ii) the routing and scheduling of the data movement in a Grid network. Regarding computation tasks, we examine two typical online task scheduling algorithms that employ advance reservations and perform full network simulation experiments to measure their performance when implemented in a centralized or distributed manner. Similarly, for communication tasks, we compare two routing and data scheduling algorithms that are implemented in a centralized or a distributed manner. We examine the effect network propagation delay has on the performance of these algorithms. Our simulation results indicate that a distributed architecture with an exhaustive resource utilization update strategy yields better average end-to-end delay performance than a centralized architecture.

Abstract: Core networks of the future will have a
translucent and eventually transparent optical
structure. Ultra-high-speed end-to-end connectiv-
ity with high quality of service and high reliability
will be realized through the exploitation of opti-
mized protocols and lightpath routing algorithms.
These algorithms will complement a flexible con-
trol and management plane integrated in the
proposed solution. Physical layer impairments
and optical performance are monitored and
incorporated in impairment-aware lightpath rout-
ing algorithms. These algorithms will be integrat-
ed into a novel dynamic network planning tool
that will consider dynamic traffic characteristics,
a reconfigurable optical layer, and varying physi-
cal impairment and component characteristics.
The network planning tool along with extended
control planes will make it possible to realize the
vision of optical transparency. This article pre-
sents a novel framework that addresses dynamic
cross-layer network planning and optimization
while considering the development of a future
transport network infrastructure.

Abstract: This work addresses networked embedded systems enabling the seam-
less interconnection of smart building automations to the Internet and
their abstractions as web services. In our approach, such abstractions are
used to primarily create a exible, holistic and scalable system and allow
external end-users to compose and run their own smart/green building
automation application services on top of this system.
Towards this direction, in this paper we present a smart building test-
bed consisting of several sensor motes and spanning across seven rooms.
Our test-bed's design and implementation simultaneously addresses sev-
eral corresponding system layers; from hardware interfaces, embedded
IPv6 networking and energy balancing routing algorithms to a RESTful
architecture and over the web development of sophisticated, smart, green
scenarios. In fact, we showcase how IPv6 embedded networking combined
with RESTful architectures make the creation of building automation ap-
plications as easy as creating any other Internet Web Service.

Abstract: In mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs), the mobility of the nodes is a complicating factor that significantly affects the effectiveness and performance of the routing protocols. Our work builds upon recent results on the effect of node mobility on the performance of available routing strategies (i.e.~path based, using support) and proposes a protocol framework that exploits the usually different mobility rates of the nodes by adapting the routing strategy during execution. We introduce a metric for the relative mobility of the nodes, according to which the nodes are classified into mobility classes. These mobility classes determine, for any pair of an origin and destination, the routing technique that best corresponds to their mobility properties. Moreover, special care is taken for nodes remaining almost stationary or moving with high (relative) speeds. Our key design goal is to limit the necessary implementation changes required to incorporate existing routing protocols in to our framework. We provide extensive evaluation of the proposed framework, using a well-known simulator (NS2). Our first findings demonstrate that the proposed framework improves, in certain cases, the performance of the existing routing protocols.

Abstract: In ad-hoc mobile networks (MANET), the mobility of the nodes is a complicating factor that significantly affects the effectiveness and performance of the routing protocols. Our work builds upon the recent results on the effect of node mobility on the performance of available routing strategies (i.e.~path based, using support) and proposes a protocol framework that exploits the usually different mobility rates of the nodes by adopting the routing strategy during execution. We introduce a metric for the relative mobility of the nodes, according to which the nodes are classified into mobility classes. These mobility classes determine, for any pair of origin and destination, the routing technique that best corresponds to their mobility properties. Moreover, special care is taken for nodes remaining almost stationary or moving with high (relative) speeds. Our key design goal is to limit the necessery implementation changes required to incorporate existing routing protocols in our framework. We provide extensive evaluation of the proposed framework, using a well-known simulator (NS2). Our first findings demonstrate that the proposed framework improves, in certain cases, the performance of the existing routing protocols.

Abstract: We propose a simple obstacle model to be used while simulating wireless sensor networks. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time such an integrated and systematic obstacle model for these networks has been proposed. We define several types of obstacles that can be found inside the deployment area of a wireless sensor network and provide a categorization of these obstacles based on their nature (physical and communication obstacles, i.e. obstacles that are formed out of node distribution patterns or have physical presence, respectively), their shape and their change of nature over time. We make an eXtension to a custom-made sensor network simulator (simDust) and conduct a number of simulations in order to study the effect of obstacles on the performance of some representative (in terms of their logic) data propagation protocols for wireless sensor networks. Our findings confirm that obstacle presence has a significant impact on protocol performance, and also that different obstacle shapes and sizes may affect each protocol in different ways. This provides an insight into how a routing protocol will perform in the presence of obstacles and highlights possible protocol shortcomings. Moreover, our results show that the effect of obstacles is not directly related to the density of a sensor network, and cannot be emulated only by changing the network density.

Abstract: We design and implement a multicost impairment- aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithm for online traffic. In transparent optical networks the quality of a transmission degrades due to physical layer impairments. To serve a connection, the proposed algorithm finds a path and a free wavelength (a lightpath) that has acceptable signal quality performance by estimating a quality of transmission measure, called the Q factor. We take into account channel utilization in the network, which changes as new connections are established or released, in order to calculate the noise variances that correspond to physical impairments on the links. These, along with the time invariant eye impairment penalties of all candidate network paths, form the inputs to the algorithm. The multicost algorithm finds a set of so called non-dominated Q paths from the given source to the given destination. Various objective functions are then evaluated in order to choose the optimal lightpath to serve the connection. The proposed algorithm combines the strength of multicost optimization with low execution time, making it appropriate for serving online connections.

Abstract: In this paper, we present a new hybrid optical burst switch architecture (HOBS) that takes advantage of the pre-transmission idle
time during lightpath establishment. In dynamic circuit switching (wavelength routing) networks, capacity is immediately hardreserved
upon the arrival of a setup message at a node, but it is used at least a round-trip time delay later. This waste of resources
is significant in optical multi-gigabit networks and can be used to transmit traffic of a lower class of service in a non-competing
way. The proposed hybrid OBS architecture, takes advantage of this idle time to transmit one-way optical bursts of a lower class of
service, while high priority data explicitly requests and establishes end-to-end lightpaths. In the proposed scheme, the two control
planes (two-way and one-way OBS reservation) are merged, in the sense that each SETUP message, used for the two-way lightpath
establishment, is associated with one-way burst transmission and therefore it is modified to carry routing and overhead information
for the one-way traffic as well. In this paper, we present the main architectural features of the proposed hybrid scheme and further
we assess its performance by conducting simulation experiments on the NSF net backbone topology. The extensive network study
revealed that the proposed hybrid architecture can achieve and sustain an adequate burst transmission rate with a finite worst case
delay.

Abstract: Tourists become increasingly dependent on mobile city guides to locate tourist services and retrieve information about nearby points of interest (POIs) when visiting unknown destinations. Although several city guides support the provision of personalized tour recommendations to assist tourists visiting the most interesting attractions, existing tour planners only consider walking tours. Herein, we introduce eCOMPASS, a context-aware mobile application which also considers the option of using public transit for moving around. Far beyond than just providing navigational aid, eCOMPASS incorporates multimodality (i.e. time dependency) within its routing logic aiming at deriving nearoptimal sequencing of POIs along recommended tours so as to best utilize time available for sightseeing and minimize waiting time at transit stops. Further advancing the state of the art, eCOMPASS allows users to define arbitrary start/end locations(e.g. the current location of a mobile user) rather than choosing among a fixed set of locations. This paper describes the routing algorithm which comprises the core functionality of eCOMPASS
and discusses the implementation details of the mobile application using the metropolitan area of Berlin (Germany) as case study

Abstract: We propose a priority-based balanced routing scheme, called the priority STAR routing scheme, which leads to optimal throughput and average delay at the same time for random broadcasting and routing. In particular, the average reception delay for random broadcasting required in n1timesn2times...timesnd tori with ni=O(1), n-ary d-cubes with n=O(1), or d-dimensional hypercubes is O(d+1/(1-rho)). We also study the case where multiple communication tasks for random 1-1 routing and/or random broadcasting are executed at the same time. When a constant fraction of the traffic is contributed by broadcast requests, the average delay for random 1-1 routing required in any d-dimensional hypercube, any n-ary d-cube with n = O(1), and most n1timesn2times...timesnd tori with ni=O(1) are O(d) based on priority STAR. Our simulation results show that the priority-based balanced routing scheme considerably outperform the best previous routing schemes for these networks

Abstract: We consider the problem of planning a mixed line
rates (MLR) wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) transport
optical network. In such networks, different modulation formats
are usually employed to support the transmission at different line
rates. Previously proposed planning algorithms, have used a
transmission reach limit for each modulation format/line rate,
mainly driven by single line rate systems. However, transmission
experiments in MLR networks have shown that physical layer
interference phenomena are more significant between
transmissions that utilize different modulation formats. Thus, the
transmission reach of a connection with a specific modulation
format/line rate depends also on the other connections that copropagate
with it in the network. To plan a MLR WDM network,
we present routing and wavelength assignment (RWA)
algorithms that take into account the adaptation of the
transmission reach of each connection according to the use of the
modulation formats/line rates in the network. The proposed
algorithms are able to plan the network so as to alleviate
interference effects, enabling the establishment of connections of
acceptable quality over paths that would otherwise be prohibited

Abstract: We study the problem of secure routing in wireless sensor networks where the sensors and the sink can move during the execution of remote monitoring applications and communication is not necessarily directed towards the sink. We present a new routing protocol that builds upon a collection of mechanisms so that the integrity and confidentiality of the information reported to the controlling authorities is secured. The mechanisms are simple to implement, rely only on local information and require O(1) storage per sensor. The protocol adapts to mobility and security challenges that may arise throughout the execution of the application. We take special care for wireless sensor networks that monitor dynamically changing environments and applications that require its operation for extended periods of time. APSR can detect when the current network conditions are about to change and becomes ready for adaption to the new conditions. We demonstrate how to deal with inside and outside attacks even when the network is adapting to internal and/or external events.

Abstract: Optical network design problems fall in the broad
category of network optimization problems. We give a short
introduction on network optimization and general algorithmic
techniques that can be used to solve complex and difficult
network design problems. We apply these techniques to address
the static Routing and Wavelength Assignment problem that is
related to planning phase of a WDM optical network. We present
simulation result to evaluate the performance of the proposed
algorithmic solution.

Abstract: As a result of recent significant technological advances, a new computing and communication environment, Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET), is about to enter the mainstream. A multitude of critical aspects, including mobility, severe limitations and limited reliability, create a new set of crucial issues and trade-offs that must be carefully taken into account in the design of robust and efficient algorithms for these environments. The communication among mobile hosts is one among the many issues that need to be resolved efficiently before MANET becomes a commodity.
In this paper, we propose to discuss the communication problem in MANET as well as present some characteristic techniques for the design, the analysis and the performance evaluation of distributed communication protocols for mobile ad hoc networks. More specifically, we propose to review two different design techniques. While the first type of protocols tries to create and maintain routing paths among the hosts, the second set of protocols uses a randomly moving subset of the hosts that acts as an intermediate pool for receiving and delivering messages. We discuss the main design choices for each approach, along with performance analysis of selected protocols.

Abstract: We introduce a new model of
ad-hoc mobile networks, which we call hierarchical,
that are comprised of dense subnetworks of mobile
users (corresponding to highly populated
geographical areas, such as cities),
interconnected across access ports
by sparse but frequently used connections
(such as highways).
For such networks, we present
an efficient routing protocol which extends
the idea (introduced in WAE00) of exploiting the co-ordinated
motion of a small part of an ad-hoc mobile
network (the ``support'') to achieve
very fast communication between any two mobile users of the network.
The basic idea of the new protocol presented here is, instead
of using a unique (large) support for the whole network,
to employ a hierarchy of (small) supports (one for each city)
and also take advantage of the regular traffic
of mobile users across the interconnection highways to communicate
between cities.
We combine here theoretical analysis (average case estimations based on random walk properties) and experimental implementations (carried out using the LEDA platform) to claim and validate results showing that such a hierarchical routing approach is,
for this class of ad-hoc mobile networks, significantly more efficient than a simple extension of the
basic ``support'' idea presented in WAE00.

Abstract: The “small world” phenomenon, i.e., the fact that the
global social network is strongly connected in the sense
that every two persons are inter-related through a small
chain of friends, has attracted research attention and has
been strongly related to the results of the social
psychologist¢s Stanley Milgram experiments; properties
of social networks and relevant problems also emerge in
peer-to-peer systems and their study can shed light on
important modern network design properties.
In this paper, we have experimentally studied greedy
routing algorithms, i.e., algorithms that route information
using “long-range” connections that function as
shortcuts connecting “distant” network nodes. In
particular, we have implemented greedy routing
algorithms, and techniques from the recent literature in
networks of line and grid topology using parallelization
for increasing efficiency. To the best of our knowledge, no
similar attempt has been made so far

Abstract: In this paper we present a new approximation algorithm for
the Minimum Energy Broadcast Routing (MEBR) problem in ad hoc
wireless networks that has exponentially better approximation factor
than the well-known Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) heuristic. Namely,
for any instance where a minimum spanning tree of the set of stations
is guaranteed to cost at most ½ times the cost of an optimal solution
for MEBR, we prove that our algorithm achieves an approximation ra-
tio bounded by 2 ln ½ ¡ 2 ln 2 + 2. This result is particularly relevant for
its consequences on Euclidean instances where we signi¯cantly improve
previous results.

Abstract: Avertical perspective, ranging from management
and routing to physical layer options, concerning dynamic
network monitoring and compensation of impairments
(M&C),is given.Feasibility, reliability,and performance
improvements on reconﬁgurable transparent networksare
expected to arise from the consolidated assessment of network management and control speciﬁcations, as a more accurate evaluation of available M&C techniques. In the network
layer,physical parameters aware algorithms are foreseen to
pursue reliable network performance. In the physical layer,
some new M&C methods were developed and rating of the state-of-the-art reported in literature is given. Optical monitoring implementation and viability is discussed.

Abstract: We introduce a new model of ad-hoc mobile networks,
which we call hierarchical, that are comprised of
dense subnetworks of mobile users (corresponding to highly
populated geographical areas), interconnected across access
ports by sparse but frequently used connections.
To implement communication in such a case, a possible
solution would be to install a very fast (yet limited) backbone
interconnecting such highly populated mobile user areas, while
employing a hierarchy of (small) supports (one for each lower level
site). This fast backbone provides a limited number of access
ports within these dense areas of mobile users.
We combine here theoretical analysis (average case estimations based on
random walk properties) to claim and validate
results showing that such a hierarchical routing approach is,
for this class of ad-hoc mobile networks, significantly
more efficient than a simple extension of the
basic ``support'' idea presented in [WAE00,DISC01].

Abstract: We consider selfish routing over a network consisting of m parallellinks through which $n$ selfish users route their traffic trying tominimize their own expected latency. We study the class of mixedstrategies in which the expected latency through each link is at mosta constant multiple of the optimum maximum latency had globalregulation been available. For the case of uniform links it is knownthat all Nash equilibria belong to this class of strategies. We areinterested in bounding the coordination ratio (or price of anarchy) ofthese strategies defined as the worst-case ratio of the maximum (overall links) expected latency over the optimum maximum latency. The loadbalancing aspect of the problem immediately implies a lower boundO(ln m ln ln m) of the coordinationratio. We give a tight (up to a multiplicative constant) upper bound.To show the upper bound, we analyze a variant of the classical ballsand bins problem, in which balls with arbitrary weights are placedinto bins according to arbitrary probability distributions. At theheart of our approach is a new probabilistic tool that we call ballfusion; this tool is used to reduce the variant of the problem whereballs bear weights to the classical version (with no weights). Ballfusion applies to more general settings such as links with arbitrarycapacities and other latency functions.

Abstract: The study of the path coloring problem is motivated by the allocation of optical bandwidth to communication requests in all-optical networks that utilize Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM). WDM technology establishes communication between pairs of network nodes by establishing transmitter-receiver paths and assigning wavelengths to each path so that no two paths going through the same fiber link use the same wavelength. Optical bandwidth is the number of distinct wavelengths. Since state-of-the-art technology allows for a limited number of wavelengths, the engineering problem to be solved is to establish communication minimizing the total number of wavelengths used. This is known as the wavelength routing problem. In the case where the underlying network is a tree, it is equivalent to the path coloring problem.
We survey recent advances on the path coloring problem in both undirected and bidirected trees. We present hardness results and lower bounds for the general problem covering also the special case of sets of symmetric paths (corresponding to the important case of symmetric communication). We give an overview of the main ideas of deterministic greedy algorithms and point out their limitations. For bidirected trees, we present recent results about the use of randomization for path coloring and outline approximation algorithms that find path colorings by exploiting fractional path colorings. Also, we discuss upper and lower bounds on the performance of on-line algorithms.

Abstract: We present a new architecture for bufferless, asynchronous all-optical self-routing network combining
an efficient physical layer structure and conflict-preventing signaling protocol for providing lossless communication
with optimum resource utilization and QoS differentiation.

Abstract: We present a 40 Gb/s asynchronous self-routing network and node architecture that exploits bit
and packet level optical signal processing to perform synchronization, forwarding and
switching. Optical packets are self-routed on a hop-by-hop basis through the network by using
stacked optical tags, each representing a specific optical node. Each tag contains control signals
for configuring the switching matrix and forwarding each packet to the appropriate outgoing
link and onto the next hop. Physical layer simulations are performed, modeling each optical subsystem
of the node showing acceptable signal quality and Bit Error Rates. Resource reservationbased
signaling algorithms are theoretically modeled for the control plane capable of providing
high performance in terms of blocking probability and holding time.

Abstract: This chapter aims at presenting certain important aspects of the design of lightweight, event-driven algorithmic solutions for data dissemination in wireless sensor networks that provide support for reliable, efficient and concurrency-intensive operation. We wish to emphasize that efficient solutions at several levels are needed, e.g.~higher level energy efficient routing protools and lower level power management schemes. Furthermore, it is important to combine such different level methods into integrated protocols and approaches. Such solutions must be simple, distributed and local. Two useful algorithmic design principles are randomization (to trade-off efficiency and fault-tolerance) and adaptation (to adjust to high network dynamics towards improved operation). In particular, we provide a) a brief description of the technical specifications of state-of-the-art sensor devices b) a discussion of possible models used to abstract such networks, emphasizing heterogeneity, c) some representative power management schemes, and d) a presentation of some characteristic protocols for data propagation. Crucial efficiency properties of these schemes and protocols (and their combinations, in some cases) are investigated by both rigorous analysis and performance evaluations through large scale simulations.

Abstract: Clustering is an important research topic for wireless sensor
networks (WSNs). A large variety of approaches has been
presented focusing on dierent performance metrics. Even
though all of them have many practical applications, an ex-
tremely limited number of software implementations is avail-
able to the research community. Furthermore, these very few
techniques are implemented for specic WSN systems or are
integrated in complex applications. Thus it is very difficult
to comparatively study their performance and almost impos-
sible to reuse them in future applications under a dierent
scope. In this work we study a large body of well estab-
lished algorithms. We identify their main building blocks
and propose a component-based architecture for developing
clustering algorithms that (a) promotes exchangeability of
algorithms thus enabling the fast prototyping of new ap-
proaches, (b) allows cross-layer implementations to realize
complex applications, (c) oers a common platform to com-
paratively study the performance of dierent approaches,
(d) is hardware and OS independent. We implement 5 well
known algorithms and discuss how to implement 11 more.
We conduct an extended simulation study to demonstrate
the faithfulness of our implementations when compared to
the original implementations. Our simulations are at very
large scale thus also demonstrating the scalability of the
original algorithms beyond their original presentations. We
also conduct experiments to assess their practicality in real
WSNs. We demonstrate how the implemented clustering
algorithms can be combined with routing and group key es-
tablishment algorithms to construct WSN applications. Our
study clearly demonstrates the applicability of our approach
and the benets it oers to both research & development
communities.

Abstract: In this article, we present a detailed performance
evaluation of a hybrid optical switching (HOS)
architecture called Overspill Routing in Optical Networks
(ORION). The ORION architecture combines
(optical) wavelength and (electronic) packet switching,
so as to obtain the individual advantages of both switching
paradigms. In particular, ORION exploits the possible insertions/extractions, to reduce the necessary
interfaces, do not deteriorate performance and thus the
use of traffic concentrators assure ORION’s economic
viability.
idle periods of established lightpaths to transmit
packets destined to the next common node, or even
directly to their common end-destination. Depending
on whether all lightpaths are allowed to simultaneously
carry and terminate overspill traffic or overspill is restricted
to a sub-set of wavelengths, the architecture
limits itself to constrained or un-constrained ORION. To
evaluate both cases, we developed an extensive network
simulator where the basic features of the ORION architectureweremodeled,
including suitable edge/core node
switches and load-varying sources to simulate overloading
traffic conditions. Further, we have assessed various
aspects of the ORION architecture including two
basic routing/forwarding policies and various buffering
schemes. The complete network study shows that
ORION can absorb temporal traffic overloads, as intended,
provided sufficient buffering is present.We also
demonstrate that the restriction of simultaneous packet

Abstract: All-optical gate control signal generation is demonstrated
from flag pulses, using a Fabry–P{\'e}rot filter followed by
a semiconductor optical amplifier. Ten control pulses are generated
from a single flag pulse having less than 0.45-dB amplitude
modulation. By doubling or tripling the number of flag pulses, the
number of control pulses increases approximately by a factor of
two or three. The circuit can control the switching state of all-optical
switches, on a packet-by-packet basis, and can be used for
nontrivial network functionalities such us self-routing.

Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks consist of a large number of small, autonomous devices, that are able to interact with their inveronment by sensing and collaborate to fulfill their tasks, as, usually, a single node is incapable of doing so; and they use wireless communication to enable this collaboration. Each device has limited computational and energy resources, thus a basic issue in the applicastions of wireless sensor networks is the low energy consumption and hence, the maximization of the network lifetime.
The collected data is disseminated to a static control point – data sink in the network, using node to node - multi-hop data propagation. However, sensor devices consume significant amounts of energy in addition to increased implementation complexity, since a routing protocol is executed. Also, a point of failure emerges in the area near the control center where nodes relay the data from nodes that are farther away. Recently, a new approach has been developed that shifts the burden from the sensor nodes to the sink. The main idea is that the sink has significant and easily replenishable energy reserves and can move inside the area the sensor network is deployed, in order to acquire the data collected by the sensor nodes at very low energy cost. However, the need to visit all the regions of the network may result in large delivery delays.
In this work we have developed protocols that control the movement of the sink in wireless sensor networks with non-uniform deployment of the sensor nodes, in order to succeed an efficient (with respect to both energy and latency) data collection. More specifically, a graph formation phase is executed by the sink during the initialization: the network area is partitioned in equal square regions, where the sink, pauses for a certain amount of time, during the network traversal, in order to collect data.
We propose two network traversal methods, a deterministic and a random one. When the sink moves in a random manner, the selection of the next area to visit is done in a biased random manner depending on the frequency of visits of its neighbor areas. Thus, less frequently visited areas are favored. Moreover, our method locally determines the stop time needed to serve each region with respect to some global network resources, such as the initial energy reserves of the nodes and the density of the region, stopping for a greater time interval at regions with higher density, and hence more traffic load. In this way, we achieve accelerated coverage of the network as well as fairness in the service time of each region.Besides randomized mobility, we also propose an optimized deterministic trajectory without visit overlaps, including direct (one-hop) sensor-to-sink data transmissions only.
We evaluate our methods via simulation, in diverse network settings and comparatively to related state of the art solutions. Our findings demonstrate significant latency and energy consumption improvements, compared to previous research.

Abstract: Wireless sensor networks are comprised of a vast number of devices, situated in an area of interest that self organize in a structureless network, in order to monitor/record/measure an environmental variable or phenomenon and subsequently to disseminate the data to the control center.
Here we present research focused on the development, simulation and evaluation of energy efficient algorithms, our basic goal is to minimize the energy consumption. Despite technology advances, the problem of energy use optimization remains valid since current and emerging hardware solutions fail to solve it.
We aim to reduce communication cost, by introducing novel techniques that facilitate the development of new algorithms. We investigated techniques of distributed adaptation of the operations of a protocol by using information available locally on every node, thus through local choices we improve overall performance. We propose techniques for collecting and exploiting limited local knowledge of the network conditions. In an energy efficient manner, we collect additional information which is used to achieve improvements such as forming energy efficient, low latency and fault tolerant paths to route data. We investigate techniques for managing mobility in networks where movement is a characteristic of the control center as well as the sensors. We examine methods for traversing and covering the network field based on probabilistic movement that uses local criteria to favor certain areas.
The algorithms we develop based on these techniques operate a) at low level managing devices, b) on the routing layer and c) network wide, achieving macroscopic behavior through local interactions. The algorithms are applied in network cases that differ in density, node distribution, available energy and also in fundamentally different models, such as under faults, with incremental node deployment and mobile nodes. In all these settings our techniques achieve significant gains, thus distinguishing their value as tools of algorithmic design.

Abstract: Direct routing is the special case of bufferless routing where N packets, once injected into the network, must be routed along specific paths to their destinations without conflicts. We give a general treatment of three facets of direct routing: (i) Algorithms. We present a polynomial time greedy algorithm for arbitrary direct routing problems whch is worst-case optimal, i.e., there exist instances for which no direct routing algorithm is better than the greedy. We apply variants of this algorithm to commonly used network topologies. In particular, we obtain near-optimal routing time using for the tree and d-dimensional mesh, given arbitrary sources and destinations; for the butterfly and the hypercube, the same result holds for random destinations. (ii) Complexity. By a reduction from Vertex Coloring, we show that Direct Routing is inapproximable, unless P=NP. (iii) Lower Bounds for Buffering. We show the existence of routing problems which cannot be solved efficiently with direct routing. To solve these problems, any routing algorithm needs buffers. We give nontrivial lower bounds on such buffering requirements for general routing algorithms.

Abstract: Peer-to-Peer (P2P) search requires intelligent decisions for query routing: selecting the best peers to which a given query, initiated at some peer, should be forwarded for retrieving additional search results. These decisions are based on statistical summaries for each peer, which are usually organized on a per-keyword basis and managed in a distributed directory of routing indices. Such architectures disregard the possible correlations among keywords. Together with the coarse granularity of per-peer summaries, which are mandated for scalability, this limitation may lead to poor search result quality.
This paper develops and evaluates two solutions to this problem, sk-STAT based on single-key statistics only, and mk-STAT based on additional multi-key statistics. For both cases, hash sketch synopses are used to compactly represent a peer's data items and are efficiently disseminated in the P2P network to form a decentralized directory. Experimental studies with Gnutella and Web data demonstrate the viability and the trade-offs of the approaches.

Abstract: This paper deals with early obstacles recognition in wireless sensor networks under various traffic
patterns. In the presence of obstacles, the efficiency of routing algorithms is increased by voluntarily avoiding some regions in the vicinity of obstacles, areas which we call dead-ends. In this paper, we first propose a fast convergent routing algorithm with proactive dead-end detection together with a formal definition and description of dead-ends. Secondly, we present a generalization of this algorithm which improves performances in all to many and all to all traffic patterns. In a third part we prove that this algorithm produces paths that are optimal up to a
constant factor of 2ð+1. In a fourth part we consider the reactive version of the algorithm which is an extension of a previously known early obstacle detection algorithm. Finally we give experimental results to illustrate the efficiency of our algorithms in different scenarios.

Abstract: We investigate the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (VRPTW) under an eco-friendly framework that demands the delivery of balanced and compact customer clusters. We present a new approach consisting of three major phases: (i) a first clustering of customers with compatible time windows; (ii) a second clustering of customers with close geographic proximity based on various methods (natural cuts, KaHIP, quad trees); (iii) a refinement phase that either splits a cluster into smaller ones, or merges clusters to form a bigger compact cluster. Our approach turns out to be beneficial when used in an on-line environment, where changes to the initial tour are requested (add a new customer to the tour or drop some customers). The new method serves as a warm starting point for re-evaluating and further optimizing the solution of VRPTW. Experiments with real data sets demonstrate that our approach compares favorably with standard approaches that start from a basic (cold) solution.

Abstract: In this thesis we investigate the problems of data routing and data collection in wireless sensor networks characterised by intense and higly diverse mobility. We propose a set of protocols that takes exploits the motion of the sensors in order to inform the sink about the network topology. We experimentally evaluate these protocolls in a wide range of topologies, including both homogeneous and heterogeneous ones.
We also investigate random walks as simple motion strategies for mobile sinks that perform data collection from static WSN's. We propose three new random walks that improve latency compared to already known ones, as well as a new metric called Proximity Variation. This metric captures the different way each random walks traverses the network area.

Abstract: We examine a task scheduling and data migration problem for grid networks, which we refer to as the Data Consolidation (DC) problem. DC arises when a task concurrently requests multiple pieces of data, possibly scattered throughout the grid network, that have to be present at a selected site before the task¢s execution starts. In such a case, the scheduler and the data manager must select (i) the data replicas to be used, (ii) the site where these data will be gathered for the task to be executed, and (iii) the routing paths to be followed; this is assuming that the selected datasets are transferred concurrently to the execution site. The algorithms or policies for selecting the data replicas, the data consolidating site and the corresponding paths comprise a Data Consolidation scheme. We propose and experimentally evaluate several DC schemes of polynomial number of operations that attempt to estimate the cost of the concurrent data transfers, to avoid congestion that may appear due to these transfers and to provide fault tolerance. Our simulation results strengthen our belief that DC is an important problem that needs to be addressed in the design of data grids, and can lead, if performed efficiently, to significant benefits in terms of task delay, network load and other performance parameters.

Abstract: Through recent technology advances in the eld of wireless energy transmission, Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks
(WRSN) have emerged. In this new paradigm for
WSNs a mobile entity called Mobile Charger (MC) traverses
the network and replenishes the dissipated energy of sensors.
In this work we rst provide a formal denition of the charging
dispatch decision problem and prove its computational
hardness. We then investigate how to optimize the tradeo
s of several critical aspects of the charging process such
as a) the trajectory of the charger, b) the dierent charging
policies and c) the impact of the ratio of the energy
the MC may deliver to the sensors over the total available
energy in the network. In the light of these optimizations,
we then study the impact of the charging process to the
network lifetime for three characteristic underlying routing
protocols; a greedy protocol, a clustering protocol and an
energy balancing protocol. Finally, we propose a Mobile
Charging Protocol that locally adapts the circular trajectory
of the MC to the energy dissipation rate of each sub-region
of the network. We compare this protocol against several
MC trajectories for all three routing families by a detailed
experimental evaluation. The derived ndings demonstrate
signicant performance gains, both with respect to the no
charger case as well as the dierent charging alternatives; in
particular, the performance improvements include the network
lifetime, as well as connectivity, coverage and energy
balance properties.

Abstract: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)
has recently been proposed as a modulation technique for optical networks, because of its good spectral efficiency, flexibility, and tolerance to impairments. We consider the planning problem of an OFDM optical network, where we are given a traffic matrix that includes the requested transmission rates of the connections to be served. Connections are provisioned for their requested rate by elastically allocating spectrum using a variable number of OFDM subcarriers and choosing an appropriate modulation level, taking into account the transmission distance. We introduce the Routing, Modulation Level and Spectrum Allocation (RMLSA) problem, as opposed to the typical Routing and Wavelength Assignment (RWA) problem of traditional WDM networks, prove that is also NP-complete and present various algorithms to solve it. We start by presenting an optimal ILP RMLSA algorithm that minimizes the spectrum used to serve the traffic matrix, and also present a decomposition method that breaks RMLSA into its two
substituent subproblems, namely, (i) routing and modulation level, and (ii) spectrum allocation (RML+SA), and solves them sequentially. We also propose a heuristic algorithm that serves connections one-by-one and use it to solve the planning problem by sequentially serving all the connections in the traffic matrix. In the sequential algorithm, we investigate two policies for defining the order in which connections are considered. We also use a simulated annealing meta-heuristic to obtain even better orderings. We examine the performance of the proposed algorithms through simulation experiments and evaluate the spectrum utilization benefits that can be obtained by utilizing OFDM elastic bandwidth allocation, when compared to a traditional WDM network.

Abstract: In this work we study energy efficient routing strategies
for wireless ad-hoc networks. In this kind of networks,
energy is a scarce resource and its conservation
and efficient use is a major issue. Our strategy follows
the multi-cost routing approach, according to which a
cost vector of various parameters is assigned to each
link. The parameters of interest are the number of hops
on a path, and the residual energy and the transmission
power of the nodes on the path. These parameters
are combined in various optimization functions,
corresponding to different routing algorithms, for selecting
the optimal path. We evaluate the routing algorithms
proposed in a number of scenarios, with respect
to energy consumption, throughput and other performance
parameters of interest. From the experiments
conducted we conclude that routing algorithms that take
into account energy related parameters, increase the
lifetime of the network, while achieving better performance
than other approaches, such as minimum hop
routing.

Abstract: In this paper, we demonstrate the significant impact of (a) the mobility rate and (b) the user density on the performance of routing protocols in ad-hoc mobile networks. In particular, we study the effect of these parameters on two different approaches for designing routing protocols: (a) the route creation and maintenance approach and (b) the support approach that forces few hosts to move, acting as helpers for message delivery. We study one representative protocol for each approach, i.e. AODV for the first approach and RUNNERS for the second. We have implemented the two protocols and performed a large scale and detailed simulation study of their performance. The main findings are: the AODV protocol behaves well in networks of high user density and low mobility rate, while its performance drops for sparse networks of highly mobile users. On the other hand, the RUNNERS protocol seems to tolerate well (and in fact benefit from) high mobility rates and low densities.

Abstract: Core optical networks using reconfigurable optical
switches and tunable lasers appear to be on the road towards
widespread deployment and could evolve to all-optical mesh
networks in the coming future. Considering the impact of physical
layer impairments in the planning and operation of all-optical
(and translucent) networks is the main focus of the DICONET
project. The impairment aware network planning and operation
tool (NPOT) is the main outcome of DICONET project, which
is explained in detail in this paper. The key building blocks of
the NPOT, consisting of network description repositories, the
physical layer performance evaluator, the impairment aware
routing and wavelength assignment engines, the component
placement modules, failure handling and the integration of
NPOT in the control plane are the main contributions of this
work. Besides, the experimental result of DICONET proposal for
centralized and distributed control plane integration schemes and
the performance of the failure handling in terms of restoration
time is presented in this work.

Abstract: In large scale networks users often behave selfishly trying to minimize their routing cost. Modelling this as a noncooperative game, may yield a Nash equilibrium with unboundedly poor network performance. To measure this inefficacy, the Coordination Ratio or Price of Anarchy (PoA) was introduced. It equals the ratio of the cost induced by the worst Nash equilibrium, to the corresponding one induced by the overall optimum assignment of the jobs to the network. On improving the PoA of a given network, a series of papers model this selfish behavior as a Stackelberg or Leader-Followers game.
We consider random tuples of machines, with either linear or M/M/1 latency functions, and PoA at least a tuning parameter c. We validate a variant (NLS) of the Largest Latency First (LLF) Leaderrsquos strategy on tuples with PoA ge c. NLS experimentally improves on LLF for systems with inherently high PoA, where the Leader is constrained to control low portion agr of jobs. This suggests even better performance for systems with arbitrary PoA. Also, we bounded experimentally the least Leaderrsquos portion agr0 needed to induce optimum cost. Unexpectedly, as parameter c increases the corresponding agr0 decreases, for M/M/1 latency functions. All these are implemented in an extensive Matlab toolbox.

Abstract: We study the combinatorial structure and computational complexity of extreme Nash equilibria, ones that maximize or minimize a certain objective function, in the context of a selfish routing game. Specifically, we assume a collection of n users, each employing a mixed strategy, which is a probability distribution over m parallel links, to control the routing of its own assigned traffic. In a Nash equilibrium, each user routes its traffic on links that minimize its expected latency cost.
Our structural results provide substantial evidence for the Fully Mixed Nash Equilibrium Conjecture, which states that the worst Nash equilibrium is the fully mixed Nash equilibrium, where each user chooses each link with positive probability. Specifically, we prove that the Fully Mixed Nash Equilibrium Conjecture is valid for pure Nash equilibria and that under a certain condition, the social cost of any Nash equilibrium is within a factor of 6 + epsi, of that of the fully mixed Nash equilibrium, assuming that link capacities are identical.
Our complexity results include hardness, approximability and inapproximability ones. Here we show, that for identical link capacities and under a certain condition, there is a randomized, polynomial-time algorithm to approximate the worst social cost within a factor arbitrarily close to 6 + epsi. Furthermore, we prove that for any arbitrary integer k > 0, it is -hard to decide whether or not any given allocation of users to links can be transformed into a pure Nash equilibrium using at most k selfish steps. Assuming identical link capacities, we give a polynomial-time approximation scheme (PTAS) to approximate the best social cost over all pure Nash equilibria. Finally we prove, that it is -hard to approximate the worst social cost within a multiplicative factor . The quantity is the tight upper bound on the ratio of the worst social cost and the optimal cost in the model of identical capacities.

Abstract: Geographic routing is becoming the protocol of choice for many sensor network applications. Some very efficient geographic routing algorithms exist, however they require a preliminary planarization of the communication graph. Planarization induces overhead which makes this approach not optimal when lightweight protocols are required. On the other hand, georouting algorithms which do not rely on planarization have fairly low success rates and either fail to route messages around all but the simplest obstacles or have a high topology control overhead (e.g. contour detection algorithms). In this entry we describe the GRIC algorithm which was designed to overcome some of those limitations. The GRIC algorithm was proposed in [PN07a]. It is the first lightweight and efficient on demand (i.e. all-to-all) geographic routing algorithm which does not require planarization, has almost 100% delivery rates (when no obstacles are added), and behaves well in the presence of large communication blocking obstacles.

Abstract: We consider the offline version of the routing and
wavelength assignment (RWA) problem in transparent all-optical networks. In such networks and in the absence of regenerators, the signal quality of transmission degrades due to physical layer
impairments. We initially present an algorithm for solving the static RWA problem based on an LP relaxation formulation that tends to yield integer solutions. To account for signal degradation due to physical impairments, we model the effects of the path length, the path hop count, and the interference among ligthpaths by imposing additional (soft) constraints on RWA. The objective of the resulting optimization problem is not only to serve the
connection requests using the available wavelengths, but also to minimize the total accumulated signal degradation on the selected lightpaths. Our simulation studies indicate that the proposed RWA algorithms select the lightpaths for the requested connections so as to avoid impairment generating sources, thus dramatically reducing the overall physical-layer blocking when compared to RWA algorithms that do not account for impairments.

Abstract: In this work we study the implementation of multicost rout-
ing in a distributed way in wireless mobile ad hoc networks.
In contrast to traditional single-cost routing, where each
path is characterized by a scalar, in multicost routing a
vector of cost parameters is assigned to each network link,
from which the cost vectors of candidate paths are calcu-
lated. These parameters are combined in various optimiza-
tion functions, corresponding to diﬀerent routing algorithms,
for selecting the optimal path. Up until now the performance
of multicost and multi-constrained routing in wireless ad hoc
networks has been evaluated either at a theoretical level or
by assuming that nodes are static and have full knowledge
of the network topology and nodes� state. In the present
paper we assess the performance of multicost routing based
on energy-related parameters in mobile ad hoc networks by
embedding its logic in the Dynamic Source Routing (DSR)
algorithm, which is a well-known fully distributed routing
algorithm. We use simulations to compare the performance
of the multicost-DSR algorithm to that of the original DSR
algorithm and examine their behavior under various node
mobility scenarios. The results conﬁrm that the multicost-
DSR algorithm improves the performance of the network in
comparison to the original DSR algorithm in terms of energy eﬃciency. The multicost-DSR algorithm enhances the
performance of the network not only by reducing energy
consumption overall in the network, but also by spreading
energy consumption more uniformly across the network, pro
longing the network lifetime and reducing the packet drop
probability. Furthermore the delay suﬀered by the packets
reaching their destination for the case of the multicost-DSR
algorithm is shown to be lower than in the case of the orig
inal DSR algorithm.

Abstract: We consider the online impairment-aware routing
and wavelength assignment (IA-RWA) problem in transparent
WDM networks. To serve a new connection, the online algorithm,
in addition to finding a route and a free wavelength (a lightpath),
has to guarantee its transmission quality, which is affected by
physical-layer impairments. Due to interference effects, the establishment
of the new lightpath affects and is affected by the other
lightpaths. We present two multicost algorithms that account
for the actual current interference among lightpaths, as well as
for other physical effects, performing a cross-layer optimization
between the network and physical layers. In multicost routing,
a vector of cost parameters is assigned to each link, from which
the cost vectors of the paths are calculated. The first algorithm
utilizes cost vectors consisting of impairment-generating source
parameters, so as to be generic and applicable to different physical
settings. These parameters are combined into a scalar cost
that indirectly evaluates the quality of candidate lightpaths. The
second algorithm uses specific physical-layer models to define
noise variance-related cost parameters, so as to directly calculate
the -factor of candidate lightpaths. The algorithms find a set of
so-called nondominated paths to serve the connection in the sense
that no path is better in the set with respect to all cost parameters.
To select the lightpath, we propose various optimization functions
that correspond to different IA-RWA algorithms. The proposed
algorithms combine the strength of multicost optimization with
low execution times, making them appropriate for serving online
connections

Abstract: This paper presents results from the IST Phosphorus project that studies and implements an optical Grid test-bed. A significant part of this project addresses scheduling and routing algorithms and dimensioning problems of optical grids. Given the high costs involved in setting up actual hardware implementations, simulations are a viable alternative. In this paper we present an initial study which proposes models that reflect real-world grid application traffic characteristics, appropriate for simulation purposes. We detail several such models and the corresponding process to extract the model parameters from real grid log traces, and verify that synthetically generated jobs provide a realistic approximation of the real-world grid job submission process.

Abstract: In this work we study the combination of multicost
routing and adjustable transmission power in wireless
ad hoc networks, so as to obtain dynamic energy- and
interference-efficient routes to optimize network performance.
In multi-cost routing, a vector of cost parameters is
assigned to each network link, from which the cost vectors
of candidate paths are calculated. Only at the end these
parameters are combined in various optimization functions,
corresponding to different routing algorithms, for selecting
the optimal path. The multi-cost routing problem is a
generalization of the multi-constrained problem, where no
constraints exist, and is also significantly more powerful
than single-cost routing. Since energy is an important
limitation of wireless communications, the cost parameters
considered are the number of hops, the interference caused,
the residual energy and the transmission power of the
nodes on the path; other parameters could also be included,
as desired. We assume that nodes can use power control to
adjust their transmission power to the desired level. The
experiments conducted show that the combination of multicost
routing and adjustable transmission power can lead to
reduced interference and energy consumption, improving
network performance and lifetime.

Abstract: Wireless sensor networks can be very useful in applications that require the detection of crucial events, in physical environments subjected to critical conditions, and the propagation of data reporting their realization to a control center. In this paper we propose jWebDust, a generic and modular application environment for developing and managing applications that are based on wireless sensor networks. Our software architecture provides a range of services that allow to create customized applications with minimum implementation effort that are easy to administrate. We move beyond the ?networking-centric? view of sensor network research and focus on how the end user (administrator, control center supervisor, etc.) will visualize and interact with the system.
We here present its open architecture, the most important design decisions, and discuss its distinct features and functionalities. jWebDust allows heterogeneous components to interoperate (real world sensor networks will rarely be homogeneous) and allows the integrated management and control of multiple such networks by also defining web-based mechanisms to visualize the network state, the results of queries, and a means to inject queries in the network. The architecture also illustrates how existing protocols for various services can interoperate in a bigger framework - such as the tree construction, query routing, etc.

Abstract: A key problem in Grid networks is how to efficiently manage the available infrastructure, in order to
satisfy user requirements and maximize resource utilization. This is in large part influenced by the
algorithms responsible for the routing of data and the scheduling of tasks. In this paper,wepresent several
multi-cost algorithms for the joint scheduling of the communication and computation resources that
will be used by a Grid task. We propose a multi-cost scheme of polynomial complexity that performs
immediate reservations and selects the computation resource to execute the task and determines the
path to route the input data. Furthermore, we introduce multi-cost algorithms that perform advance
reservations and thus also find the starting times for the data transmission and the task execution. We
initially present an optimal scheme of non-polynomial complexity and by appropriately pruning the set
of candidate paths we also give a heuristic algorithm of polynomial complexity. Our performance results
indicate that in a Grid network in which tasks are either CPU- or data-intensive (or both), it is beneficial
for the scheduling algorithm to jointly consider the computational and communication problems. A
comparison between immediate and advance reservation schemes shows the trade-offs with respect to
task blocking probability, end-to-end delay and the complexity of the algorithms.

Abstract: We propose a class of novel energy-efficient multi-cost routing algorithms for wireless mesh networks, and evaluate their performance. In multi-cost routing, a vector of cost parameters is assigned to each network link, from which the cost vectors of candidate paths are calculated using appropriate operators. In the end these parameters are combined in various optimization functions, corresponding to different routing algorithms, for selecting the optimal path. We evaluate the performance of the proposed energy-aware multi-cost routing algorithms under two models. In the network evacuation model, the network starts with a number of packets that have to be transmitted and an amount of energy per node, and the objective is to serve the packets in the smallest number of steps, or serve as many packets as possible before the energy is depleted. In the dynamic one-to-one communication model, new data packets are generated continuously and nodes are capable of recharging their energy periodically, over an infinite time horizon, and we are interested in the maximum achievable steady-state throughput, the packet delay, and the energy consumption. Our results show that energy-aware multi-cost routing increases the lifetime of the network and achieves better overall network performance than other approaches.

Abstract: In this work we study the combination of
multicost routing and adjustable transmission power
in wireless ad-hoc networks, so as to obtain dynamic
energy and interference-efficient routes to optimize network performance. In multi-cost routing, a vector of
cost parameters is assigned to each network link, from
which the cost vectors of candidate paths are calcu-
lated. Only at the end are these parameters combined in
various optimization functions, corresponding to different routing algorithms, for selecting the optimal path.
The multi-cost routing problem is a generalization of
the multi-constrained problem, where no constraints exist, and is also significantly more powerful than single-
cost routing. Since energy is an important limitation of
wireless communications, the cost parameters consid
ered are the number of hops, the interference caused,
the residual energy and the transmission power of the
nodes on the path; other parameters could also be in
cluded, as desired.We assume that nodes can use power
control to adjust their transmission power to the desired
level. The experiments conducted show that the com
bination of multi-cost routing and adjustable transmis sion power can lead to reduced interference and energy
consumption, improving network performance and life-
time.

Abstract: In this work we study the dynamic one-to-one communica-
tion problem in energy- and capacity-constrained wireless ad-hoc net-
works. The performance of such networks is evaluated under random
traﬃc generation and continuous energy recharging at the nodes over an
inﬁnite-time horizon.We are interested in the maximum throughput that
can be sustained by the network with the node queues being ﬁnite and in
the average packet delay for a given throughput. We propose a multicost
energy-aware routing algorithm and compare its performance to that of
minimum-hop routing. The results of our experiments show that gener-
ally the energy-aware algorithm achieves a higher maximum throughput
than the minimum-hop algorithm. More speciﬁcally, when the network
is mainly energy-constrained and for the 2-dimensional topology consid-
ered, the throughput of the proposed energy-aware routing algorithm is
found to be almost twice that of the minimum-hop algorithm.

Abstract: We provide an improved FPTAS for multiobjective shortest paths,a fundamental (NP_hard) problem in multiobjective optimization,along with a new generic method for obtaining FPTAS to any multiobjective optimization problem with non-linear objectives. We show how these results can be used to obtain better approximate solutions to three related problems that have important applications in QoS routing and in traffic optimization.

Abstract: We provide an improved FPTAS for multiobjective shortest paths—a fundamental (NP-hard) problem in multiobjective optimization—along with a new generic method for obtaining FPTAS to any multiobjective optimization problem with non-linear objectives. We show how these results can be used to obtain better approximate solutions to three related problems, multiobjective constrained [optimal] path and non-additive shortest path, that have important applications in QoS routing and in traffic optimization. We also show how to obtain a FPTAS to a natural generalization of the weighted multicommodity flow problem with elastic demands and values that models several realistic scenarios in transportation and communication networks.

Abstract: Let n atomic players be routing their unsplitable flow on mresources.
When each player has the option to drop her current resource and select a better
one, and this option is exercised sequentially and unilaterally, then a Nash Equilibrium
(NE) will be eventually reached. Acting sequentially, however, is unrealistic
in large systems. But, allowing concurrency, with an arbitrary number of
players updating their resources at each time point, leads to an oscillation away
from NE, due to big groups of players moving simultaneously and due to nonsmooth
resource cost functions. In this work, we validate experimentally simple
concurrent protocols that are realistic, distributed and myopic yet are scalable, require
only information local at each resource and, still, are experimentally shown
to quickly reach a NE for a range of arbitrary cost functions.

Abstract: We present the NanoPeers architecture paradigm, a
peer-to-peer network of lightweight devices, lacking all or
most of the capabilities of their computer-world counterparts.
We identify the problems arising when we apply current
routing and searching methods to this nano-world, and
present some initial solutions, using a case study of a sensor
network instance; Smart Dust. Furthermore, we propose
the P2P Worlds framework as a hybrid P2P architecture
paradigm, consisting of cooperating layers of P2P
networks, populated by computing entities with escalating
capabilities. Our position is that (i) experience gained
through research and experimentation in the field of P2P
computing, can be indispensable when moving down the
stair of computing capabilities, and that (ii) the proposed
framework can be the basis of numerous real-world applications,
opening up several challenging research problems.

Abstract: We propose local mechanisms for efficiently marking the broader network region around obstacles, for data propagation to early enough avoid them towards near-optimal routing paths. In particular, our methods perform an online identification of sensors lying near obstacle boundaries,which then appropriately emit beacon messages in the network towards establishing efficient obstacle avoidance paths. We provide a variety of beacon dissemination schemes that satisfy different trade-offs between protocol overhead and performance. Compared to greedy, face routing and trustbased methods in the state of the art, our methods achieve significantly shorter propagation paths, while introducing much lower overhead and converging faster to near-optimality.

Abstract: Geographic routing scales well in sensor networks, mainly
due to its stateless nature. Still, most of the algorithms are
concerned with finding some path, while the optimality of
the path is difficult to achieve. In this paper we are presenting
a novel geographic routing algorithm with obstacle
avoidance properties. It aims at finding the optimal path
from a source to a destination when some areas of the network
are unavailable for routing due to low local density or
obstacle presence. It locally and gradually with time (but,
as we show, quite fast) evaluates and updates the suitability
of the previously used paths and ignores non optimal paths
for further routing. By means of extensive simulations, we
are comparing its performance to existing state of the art
protocols, showing that it performs much better in terms of
path length thus minimizing latency, space, overall traffic
and energy consumption.

Abstract: We propose local mechanisms for efficiently marking the
broader network region around obstacles, for data propagation
to early enough avoid them towards near-optimal
routing paths. In particular, our methods perform an online
identification of sensors lying near obstacle boundaries,
which then appropriately emit beacon messages in the network
towards establishing efficient obstacle avoidance paths.
We provide a variety of beacon dissemination schemes that
satisfy different trade-offs between protocol overhead and
performance. Compared to greedy, face routing and trustbased
methods in the state of the art, our methods achieve
significantly shorter propagation paths, while introducing
much lower overhead and converging faster to near-optimality.

Abstract: We study network load games, a class of routing games in
networks which generalize sel{\^A}¯sh routing games on networks consisting
of parallel links. In these games, each user aims to route some tra{\^A}±c from
a source to a destination so that the maximum load she experiences in the
links of the network she occupies is minimum given the routing decisions
of other users. We present results related to the existence, complexity,
and price of anarchy of Pure Nash Equilibria for several network load
games. As corollaries, we present interesting new statements related to
the complexity of computing equilibria for sel{\^A}¯sh routing games in net-
works of restricted parallel links.

Abstract: We consider the offline version of the routing and
wavelength assignment (RWA) problem in transparent all-optical
networks. In such networks and in the absence of regenerators,
the signal quality of transmission degrades due to physical layer
impairments. Because of certain physical effects, routing choices
made for one lightpath affect and are affected by the choices made
for the other lightpaths. This interference among the lightpaths
is particularly difficult to formulate in an offline algorithm since,
in this version of the problem, we start without any established
connections and the utilization of lightpaths are the variables of
the problem.We initially present an algorithm for solving the pure
(without impairments) RWA problem based on a LP-relaxation
formulation that tends to yield integer solutions. Then, we extend
this algorithm and present two impairment-aware (IA) RWA algorithms
that account for the interference among lightpaths in their
formulation. The first algorithm takes the physical layer indirectly
into account by limiting the impairment-generating sources. The
second algorithm uses noise variance-related parameters to directly
account for the most important physical impairments. The
objective of the resulting cross-layer optimization problem is not
only to serve the connections using a small number of wavelengths
(network layer objective), but also to select lightpaths that have
acceptable quality of transmission (physical layer objective).
Simulations experiments using realistic network, physical layer,
and traffic parameters indicate that the proposed algorithms can
solve real problems within acceptable time.

Abstract: In this paper we demonstrate the significant impact of (a) the mobility rate and (b) the user density on the performance of routing protocols in ad-hoc mobile networks. In particular, we study the effect of these parameters on two different approaches for designing routing protocols: (a) the route creation and maintenance approach and (b) the "support" approach, that forces few hosts to move acting as "helpers" for message delivery. We study one representative protocol for each approach, i.e., AODV for the first approach and RUNNERS for the second. We have implemented the two protocols and performed a large scale and detailed simulation study of their performance. For the first time, we study AODV (and RUNNERS) in the 3D case. The main findings are: the AODV protocol behaves well in networks of high user density and low mobility rate, while its performance drops for sparse networks of highly mobile users. On the other hand, the RUNNERS protocol seems to tolerate well (and in fact benefit from) high mobility rates and low densities. Thus, we are able to partially answer an important conjecture of [Chatzigiannakis, I et al. 2003].

Abstract: In routing games, the network performance at equilibrium can be significantly improved if we remove some edges from the network. This counterintuitive fact, widely known as Braess's paradox, gives rise to the (selfish) network design problem, where we seek to recognize routing games suffering from the paradox, and to improve the equilibrium performance by edge removal. In this work, we investigate the computational complexity and the approximability of the network design problem for non-atomic bottleneck routing games, where the individual cost of each player is the bottleneck cost of her path, and the social cost is the bottleneck cost of the network. We first show that bottleneck routing games do not suffer from Braess's paradox either if the network is series-parallel, or if we consider only subpath-optimal Nash flows. On the negative side, we prove that even for games with strictly increasing linear latencies, it is NP-hard not only to recognize instances suffering from the paradox, but also to distinguish between instances for which the Price of Anarchy (PoA) can decrease to 1 and instances for which the PoA is as large as \Omega(n^{0.121}) and cannot improve by edge removal. Thus, the network design problem for such games is NP-hard to approximate within a factor of O(n^{0.121-\eps}), for any constant \eps > 0. On the positive side, we show how to compute an almost optimal subnetwork w.r.t. the bottleneck cost of its worst Nash flow, when the worst Nash flow in the best subnetwork routes a non-negligible amount of flow on all used edges. The running time is determined by the total number of paths, and is quasipolynomial when the number of paths is quasipolynomial.

Abstract: In future transparent optical networks, it is
important to consider the impact of physical impairments in the
routing and wavelengths assignment process, to achieve efficient
connection provisioning. In this paper, we use classical multi-
objective optimization (MOO) strategies and particularly genetic
algorithms to jointly solve the impairment aware RWA (IA-
RWA) problem. Fiber impairments are indirectly considered
through the insertion of the path length and the number of
common hops in the optimization process. It is shown that
blocking is greatly improved, while the obtained solutions truly
converge towards the Pareto front that constitutes the set of
global optimum solutions. We have evaluated our findings, using
an Q estimator tool, that calculates the signal quality of each path
analytically.
Index Terms RWA, Genetic Algorithm, All-Optical
Networks, Multi Objective Optimization.

Abstract: We propose and evaluate an impairment-aware multi-parametric routing and wavelength assignment algorithm for online traffic in transparent optical networks. In such networks the signal quality of transmission degrades due to physical layer impairments. In the multiparametric approach, a vector of cost parameters is assigned to each link, from which the cost vectors of candidate lightpaths are calculated. In the proposed scheme the cost vector includes impairment generating source parameters, such as the path length, the number of hops, the number of crosstalk sources and other inter-lightpath interfering parameters, so as to indirectly account for the physical layer effects. For a requested connection the algorithm calculates a set of candidate lightpaths, whose quality of transmission is validated using a function that combines the impairment generating parameters. For selecting the lightpath we propose and evaluate various optimization functions that correspond to different IA-RWA algorithms. Our performance results indicate that the proposed algorithms utilize efficiently the available resources and minimize the total accumulated signal degradation on the selected lightpaths, while having low execution times.

Abstract: The objective of this research is to propose two new optical procedures for packet routing and forwarding in the framework of transparent optical networks. The single-wavelength label-recognition and packet-forwarding unit, which represents the central physical constituent of the switching node, is fully described in both cases. The first architecture is a hybrid opto-electronic structure relying on an optical serial-to-parallel converter designed to slow down the label processing. The remaining switching operations are done electronically. The routing system remains transparent for the packet payloads. The second architecture is an all-optical architecture and is based on the implementation of all-optical decoding of the parallelized label. The packet-forwarding operations are done optically. The major subsystems required in both of the proposed architectures are described on the basis of nonlinear effects in semiconductor optical amplifiers. The experimental results are compatible with the integration of the whole architecture. Those subsystems are a 4-bit time-to-wavelength converter, a pulse extraction circuit, a an optical wavelength generator, a 3 x 8 all-optical decoder and a packet envelope detector.

Abstract: This paper studies the data gathering problem in wireless networks, where data generated at the nodes has to be collected at a single sink. We investigate the relationship between routing optimality and fair resource management. In particular, we prove that for energy balanced data propagation, Pareto optimal routing and flow maximization are equivalent, and also prove that flow maximization is equivalent to maximizing the network lifetime. We algebraically characterize the network structures in which energy balanced data flows are maximal. Moreover, we algebraically characterize communication links which are not used by an optimal flow. This leads to the characterization of minimal network structures supporting the maximal flows.
We note that energy balance, although implying global optimality, is a local property that can be computed efficiently and in a distributed manner. We suggest online distributed algorithms for energy balance in different optimal network structures and numerically show their stability in particular setting. We remark that although the results obtained in this paper have a direct consequence in energy saving for wireless networks they do not limit themselves to this type of networks neither to energy as a resource. As a matter of fact, the results are much more general and can be used for any type of network and different type of resources.

Abstract: This paper studies the data gathering problem in wireless networks, where data generated at the nodes has to be collected at a single sink. We investigate the relationship between routing optimality and fair resource management. In particular, we prove that for energy-balanced data propagation, Pareto optimal routing and flow maximization are equivalent, and also prove that flow maximization is equivalent to maximizing the network lifetime. We algebraically characterize the network structures in which energy-balanced data flows are maximal. Moreover, we algebraically characterize communication links which are not used by an optimal flow. This leads to the characterization of minimal network structures supporting the maximal flows.
We note that energy-balance, although implying global optimality, is a local property that can be computed efficiently and in a distributed manner. We suggest online distributed algorithms for energy-balance in different optimal network structures and numerically show their stability in particular setting. We remark that although the results obtained in this paper have a direct consequence in energy saving for wireless networks they do not limit themselves to this type of networks neither to energy as a resource. As a matter of fact, the results are much more general and can be used for any type of network and different types of resources.

Abstract: In this work we propose and develop a comprehensive
infrastructure, coined PastryStrings, for supporting rich
queries on both numerical (with range, and comparison
predicates) and string attributes, (accommodating equality,
prefix, suffix, and containment predicates) over DHT networks
utilising prefix-based routing. As event-based, publish/
subscribe information systems are a champion application
class, we formulate our solution in terms of this environment.

Abstract: In this work we propose and develop a comprehensive infrastructure, coined PastryStrings, for supporting rich queries on
both numerical (with range, and comparison predicates) and string attributes, (accommodating equality, prefix, suffix, and
containment predicates) over DHT networks utilising prefix-based routing. As event-based, publish/subscribe information
systems are a champion application class, we formulate our solution in terms of this environment.

Abstract: We consider path protection in the routing and
wavelength assignment (RWA) problem for impairment
constrained WDM optical networks. The proposed multicost
RWA algorithms select the primary and the backup lightpaths by
accounting for physical layer impairments. The backup lightpath
may either be activated (1+1 protection) or it may be reserved and
not activated, with activation taking place when/if needed (1:1
protection). In case of 1:1 protection the period of time where the
quality of its transmission (QoT) is valid, despite the possible
establishment of future connections, should be preserved, so as to
be used in case the primary lightpath fails. We show that, by using
the multicost approach for solving the RWA with protection
problem, great benefits can be achieved both in terms of the
connection blocking rate and in terms of the validity period of the
backup lightpath. Moreover the multicost approach, by providing
a set of candidate lightpaths for each source destination pair,
instead of a single one, offers ease and flexibility in selecting the
primary and the backup lightpaths.

Abstract: We demonstrate the use of impairment constraint routing
for performance engineering of transparent metropolitan area
optical networks. Our results show the relationship between
blocking probability and different network characteristics such
as span length, amplifier noise figure, and hit rate,and provide
information on the system specifications required to achieve
acceptable network performance.

Abstract: We present a network operation tool called Impairment Aware Lightpath Computation Engine
(IALCE) that incorporates an impairment-aware routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) algorithm.
We perform experiments illustrating the flexibility of the engine and the performance of the algorithm

Abstract: We present a detailed performance evaluation of a
hybrid optical switching architecture called Overspill Routing in
Optical Networks (ORION). The ORION architecture combines
wavelength and (electronic) packet switching, so as to obtain the
advantages of both switching paradigms. We have developed an
extensive network simulator where the basic features of the
ORION architecture were modeled, including suitable loadvarying
sources and edge/core node architectures. Various aspects
of the ORION architecture were studied including the routing
policies used (i.e. once ORION always ORION and lightpath reentry)
and the various options available for the buffer
architecture. The complete network study shows that ORION can
absorb temporary traffic overloads, as intended, provided
sufficient buffering is present.

Abstract: This Volume contains the 11 papers corresponding to poster and demo presentations
accepted to the 7th ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Modeling,
Analysis and Simulation ofWireless and Mobile Systems (MSWiM 04),
that is held October 4-6, 2004, in Venice, Italy.
MSWiM 2004 (http://www.cs.unibo.it/mswim2004/) is intended to provide
an international forum for original ideas, recent results and achievements on
issues and challenges related to mobile and wireless systems.
A Call for Posters was announced and widely disseminated, soliciting posters
that report on recent original results or on-going research in the area of wireless
and mobile networks. Prospective authors were encouraged to submit interesting
results on all aspects of modeling, analysis and simulation of mobile and
wireless networks and systems. The scope and topics of the Posters Session
were the same as those included in the MSWiM Call for Papers (see above).
Poster presentations were meant to provide authors with early feedback on
their research work and enable them to present their research and exchange
ideas during the Symposium.
All submissions to the call for posters as well as selected papers submitted
to MSWiM 04 were considered and reviewed. The review process resulted in
accepting the set of 11 papers included in this Volume. Accepted posters will
also be on display during the Symposium.
The set of papers in this Proceedings covers a wide range of important topics
in wireless and mobile computing, including channel allocation in wireless
networks, quality of service provisioning in IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs, IP
mobility support, energy conservation, routing in mobile adhoc networks, resource
sharing, wireless access to the WWW, sensor networks etc. The performance
evaluation techniques used include both analysis and simulation.
We hope that the poster papers included in this Volume will facilitate a fruitful
and lively discussion and exchange of interesting and creative ideas during
the Symposium.
We wish to thank the MSWiM Steering Committee Chair Azzedine Boukerche
and the Program Co-Chairs ofMSWiM 04 Carla-Fabiana Chiasserini and
Lorenzo Donatiello for their valuable help in the selection procedure. Also, the
MSWiM 04 Publicity Co-Chairs Luciano Bononi, Helen Karatza and Mirela
Sechi Moretti Annoni Notare for disseminating the Call for Posters.
We wish to warmly thank the Poster Proceedings Chair Ioannis Chatzigiannakis
for carefully doing an excellent job in preparing the Volume you now
hold in your hands.

Abstract: In this work we focus on the energy efficiency challenge in wireless sensor networks, from both an on-line perspective (related to routing), as well as a network design perspective (related to tracking). We investigate a few representative, important aspects of energy efficiency: a) the robust and fast data propagation b) the problem of balancing the energy
dissipation among all sensors in the network and c) the problem of efficiently tracking moving
entities in sensor networks. Our work here is a methodological survey of selected results that
have alre dy appeared in the related literature.
In particular, we investigate important issues of energy optimization, like minimizing the total
energy dissipation, minimizing the number of transmissions as well as balancing the energy
load to prolong the system¢s lifetime. We review characteristic protocols and techniques in the recent literature, including probabilistic forwarding and local optimization methods. We study the problem of localizing and tracking multiple moving targets from a network design perspective i.e. towards estimating the least possible number of sensors, their positions and operation characteristics needed to efficiently perform the tracking task. To avoid an expensive massive deployment, we try to take advantage of possible coverage overlaps over space and time, by introducing a novel combinatorial model that captures such overlaps. Under this model, we abstract the tracking network design problem by a covering combinatorial problem and then design and analyze an efficient approximate method for sensor placement
and operation.

Abstract: The content-based publish/subscribe (pub/sub)paradigm for system design is becoming increasingly popular, offering unique benefits for a large number of data-intensive applications. Coupled with the peer-to-peer technology, it can serve as a central building block for such applications
deployed over a large-scale network infrastructure. A key problem toward the creation of large-scale contentbased pub/sub infrastructures relates to dealing efficiently with continuous queries (subscriptions) with rich predicates on string attributes; In particular, efficiently and accurately
matching substring queries to incoming events is an open problem. In this work we study this problem. We provide and analyze novel algorithms for processing subscriptions with substring predicates and events in a variety of environments. We provide experimental data demonstrating the
relative performance behavior of the proposed algorithms using as key metrics the network bandwidth requirements, number of messages, load balancing, as well as requirements for extra routing state (and related maintenance) and design flexibility.

Abstract: Grids offer a transparent interface to geographically scattered computation, communication, storage and
other resources. In this chapter we propose and evaluate QoS-aware and fair scheduling algorithms for
Grid Networks, which are capable of optimally or near-optimally assigning tasks to resources, while taking
into consideration the task characteristics and QoS requirements. We categorize Grid tasks according to
whether or not they demand hard performance guarantees. Tasks with one or more hard requirements are
referred to as Guaranteed Service (GS) tasks, while tasks with no hard requirements are referred to as Best
Effort (BE) tasks. For GS tasks, we propose scheduling algorithms that provide deadline or computational
power guarantees, or offer fair degradation in the QoS such tasks receive in case of congestion. Regarding
BE tasks our objective is to allocate resources in a fair way, where fairness is interpreted in the max-min fair
share sense. Though, we mainly address scheduling problems on computation resources, we also look at
the joint scheduling of communication and computation resources and propose routing and scheduling
algorithms aiming at co-allocating both resource type so as to satisfy their respective QoS requirements.

Abstract: This research further investigates the recently introduced
(in [4]) paradigm of radiation awareness in ambient environments with abundant heterogeneous wireless networking
from a distributed computing perspective. We call radiation
at a point of a wireless network the total amount of electromagnetic quantity the point is exposed to; our denition incorporates the eect of topology as well as the time domain
and environment aspects. Even if the impact of radiation to
human health remains largely unexplored and controversial,
we believe it is worth trying to understand and control, in
a way that does not decrease much the quality of service
oered to users of the wireless network.
In particular, we here focus on the fundamental problem
of ecient data propagation in wireless sensor networks, try-
ing to keep latency low while maintaining at low levels the
radiation cumulated by wireless transmissions. We rst propose greedy and oblivious routing heuristics that are radiation aware. We then combine them with temporal back-o
schemes that use local properties of the network (e.g. number of neighbours, distance from sink) in order to spread" radiation in a spatio-temporal way. Our proposed radiation
aware routing heuristics succeed to keep radiation levels low,
while not increasing latency.

Abstract: The sensor devices are battery powered thus energy is the most precious resource of a wireless sensor
network since periodically replacing the battery of the nodes in large scale deployments is infeasible. The
collected data is disseminated to a static control point { data sink in the network, using node to node
{ multi-hop data propagation, [4, 6]. However, sensor devices consume signicant amounts of energy in
addition to increased implementation complexity since a routing protocol is executed. Also, a point of
failure emerges in the area near the control center where nodes relay the data from nodes that are farther
away

Abstract: We consider the problem of planning a mixed line rate
(MLR) wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) transport
optical network. In such networks, different modulation formats
are usually employed to support transmission at different line
rates. Previously proposed planning algorithms have used a
transmission reach bound for each modulation format/line rate,
mainly driven by single line rate systems. However, transmission
experiments in MLR networks have shown that physical layer
interference phenomena are more severe among transmissions
that utilize different modulation formats. Thus, the transmission
reach of a connection with a specific modulation format/line rate
depends also on the other connections that co-propagate with it
in the network. To plan a MLR WDM network, we present
routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) algorithms that
adapt the transmission reach of each connection according to the
use of the modulation formats/line rates in the network. The
proposed algorithms are able to plan the network so as to
alleviate cross-rate interference effects, enabling the
establishment of connections of acceptable quality over paths that
would otherwise be prohibited.

Abstract: This paper presents a summary of Optical Burst Switching (OBS) research within the VI framework program e-Photon/ONe network of excellence. The paper includes network aspects such as routing techniques, resilience and contention resolution, together with burst switch architectures. On the other hand, we also discuss traffic analysis issues, Quality of Service (QoS) schemes, TCP/IP over OBS and physical layer aspects for OBS.

Abstract: This paper presents a summary of Optical Burst Switching (OBS) research within the VI framework program e-Photon/ONe
network of excellence. The paper includes network aspects such as routing techniques, resilience and contention resolution, together
with burst switch architectures. On the other hand, we also discuss traffic analysis issues, Quality of Service (QoS) schemes, TCP/IP
over OBS and physical layer aspects for OBS.

Abstract: A key problem in networks that support advance reservations is the routing and time scheduling of connections with flexible starting time and known data transfer size. In this paper we present a multicost routing and scheduling algorithm for selecting the path to be followed by such a connection and the time the data should start and end transmission at each link so as to minimize the reception time at the destination, or optimize some other performance criterion. The utilization profiles of the network links, the link propagation delays, and the parameters of the connection to be scheduled form the inputs to the algorithm. We initially present a scheme of non-polynomial complexity to compute a set of so called non-dominated candidate paths, from which the optimal path can be found. We then propose two mechanisms to appropriately prune the set of candidate paths in order to find multicost routing and scheduling algorithms of polynomial complexity. We examine the performance of the algorithms in the special case of an Optical Burst Switched network. Our results indicate that the proposed polynomial-time algorithms have performance that is very close to that of the optimal algorithm. We also study the effects network propagation delays and link-state update policies have on performance.

Abstract: We propose QoS-aware scheduling algorithms for Grid Networks that are capable of optimally or near-optimally
assigning computation and communication tasks to grid resources. The routing and scheduling algorithms to be
presented take as input the resource utilization profiles and the task characteristics and QoS requirements, and
co-allocate resources while accounting for the dependencies between communication and computation tasks.
Keywords: communication and computation utilization profiles, multicost routing and scheduling, grid
computing.

Abstract: A key problem in networks that support advance reservations is the routing and time scheduling of
connections with flexible starting time and known data transfer size. In this paper we present a multicost
routing and scheduling algorithm for selecting the path to be followed by such a connection and the time the
data should start and end transmission at each link so as to minimize the reception time at the destination,
or optimize some other performance criterion. The utilization profiles of the network links, the link
propagation delays, and the parameters of the connection to be scheduled form the inputs to the algorithm.
We initially present a scheme of non-polynomial complexity to compute a set of so-called non-dominated
candidate paths, from which the optimal path can be found. We then propose two mechanisms to
appropriately prune the set of candidate paths in order to find multicost routing and scheduling algorithms of
polynomial complexity. We examine the performance of the algorithms in the special case of an Optical
Burst Switched network. Our results indicate that the proposed polynomial time algorithms have performance that is very close to that of the optimal algorithm. We also study the effects network
propagation delays and link-state update policies have on performance.

Abstract: A key problem in networks that support advance
reservations is the routing and time scheduling of connections
with flexible starting time. In this paper we present a multicost
routing and scheduling algorithm for selecting the path to be
followed by such a connection and the time the data should start
so as to minimize the reception time at the destination, or some
other QoS requirement. The utilization profiles of the network
links, the link propagation delays, and the parameters of the
connection to be scheduled form the inputs to the algorithm. We
initially present a scheme of non-polynomial complexity to
compute a set of so-called non-dominated candidate paths, from
which the optimal path can be found. By appropriately pruning
the set of candidate paths using path pseudo-domination
relationships, we also find multicost routing and scheduling
algorithms of polynomial complexity. We examine the
performance of the algorithms in the special case of an Optical
Burst Switched network. Our results indicate that the proposed
polynomial time algorithms have performance that it is very close
to that of the optimal algorithm.

Abstract: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)
has been recently proposed as a modulation technique for optical
networks, due to its good spectral efficiency and impairment
tolerance. Optical OFDM is much more flexible compared to
traditional WDM systems, enabling elastic bandwidth
transmissions. We consider the planning problem of an OFDMbased optical network where we are given a traffic matrix that
includes the requested transmission rates of the connections to be
served. Connections are provisioned for their requested rate by
elastically allocating spectrum using a variable number of OFDM
subcarriers. We introduce the Routing and Spectrum Allocation
(RSA) problem, as opposed to the typical Routing and
Wavelength Assignment (RWA) problem of traditional WDM
networks, and present various algorithms to solve the RSA. We
start by presenting an optimal ILP RSA algorithm that minimizes
the spectrum used to serve the traffic matrix, and also present a
decomposition method that breaks RSA into two substituent
subproblems, namely, (i) routing and (ii) spectrum allocation
(R+SA) and solves them sequentially. We also propose a heuristic
algorithm that serves connections one-by-one and use it to solve
the planning problem by sequentially serving all traffic matrix
connections. To feed the sequential algorithm, two ordering
policies are proposed; a simulated annealing meta-heuristic is also
proposed to obtain even better orderings. Our results indicate
that the proposed sequential heuristic with appropriate ordering
yields close to optimal solutions in low running times.

Abstract: In this paper we demonstrate the significant impact of the user mobility rates on the performance on two different approaches for designing routing protocols for ad-hoc mobile networks: (a) the route creation and maintenance approach and (b) the "support" approach, that forces few hosts to move acting as
"helpers" for message delivery. We study a set of representative protocols for each approach, i.e.~DSR and ZRP for the first approach and RUNNERS for the second. We have implemented the three protocols and performed a large scale and detailed simulation study of their performance. Our findings are: (i) DSR achieves low message delivery rates but manages to deliver messages very fast; (ii) ZRP behaves well in networks of low mobility rate, while its performance drops for networks of highly mobile users; (iii) RUNNERS seem to tolerate well (and in fact benefit from) high mobility rates.
Based on our investigation, we design and implement two new protocols that result from the synthesis of the investigated routing approaches. We conducted an extensive, comparative simulation study of their performance. The new protocols behave well both in networks of diverse mobility motion rates, and in some cases they even outperform the original ones by achieving lower message delivery delays.

Abstract: Our position is that a key to research efforts on ensuring high
performance in very large scale sharing networks is the idea of
volunteering; recognizing that such networks are comprised of
largely heterogeneous nodes in terms of their capacity and
behaviour, and that, in many real-world manifestations, a few
nodes carry the bulk of the request service load. In this paper we
outline how we employ volunteering as the basic idea using
which we develop altruism-endowed self-organizing sharing
networks to help solve two open problems in large-scale peer-topeer
networks: (i) to develop an overlay topology structure that
enjoys better performance than DHT-structured networks and,
specifically, to offer O(log log N) routing performance in a
network of N nodes, instead of O(log N), and (ii) to efficiently
process complex queries and range queries, in particular.

Abstract: Geographic routing is becoming the protocol of choice for
many sensor network applications. The current state of the art is unsatisfactory:
some algorithms are very efficient, however they require a
preliminary planarization of the communication graph. Planarization induces
overhead and is thus not realistic for some scenarios such as the
case of highly dynamic network topologies. On the other hand, georouting
algorithms which do not rely on planarization have fairly low success
rates and fail to route messages around all but the simplest obstacles.
To overcome these limitations, we propose the GRIC geographic routing
algorithm. It has absolutely no topology maintenance overhead, almost
100% delivery rates (when no obstacles are added), bypasses large convex
obstacles, finds short paths to the destination, resists link failure
and is fairly simple to implement. The case of hard concave obstacles
is also studied; such obstacles are hard instances for which performance
diminishes.

Abstract: We consider the Routing and Spectrum Allocation (RSA) problem in an OFDM-based optical
network with elastic bandwidth allocation. We asses the spectrum utilization gains of this flexible
architecture compared to a traditional fixed-grid rigid-bandwidth WDM network

Abstract: One of the most eminent problems in sensor networks is the
routing of data to a central destination in a robust and e±cient manner.
In this work we propose a new scalable protocol for propagating infor-
mation about a sensed event towards a receiving center. Using only local
information and total absence of coordination between sensors our pro-
tocol achieves to propagate the sensed data to a receiving center by ac-
tivating only those nodes that lie very close to the optimal path between
the source of the event and the destination, resulting in low activation of
the network's sensors. Thus the protocol is very energy e±cient. Further-
more, our protocol is robust as it manages to propagate the information
even when sensors fail with certain probability.

Abstract: In this paper, we analyze the stability properties of the FIFO protocol in the Adversarial Queueing model for packet routing. We show a graph for which FIFO is stable for any adversary with injection rate r ≰ 0.1428. We generalize this results to show upper bound for stability of any network under FIFO protocol, answering partially an open question raised by Andrews et al. in [2]. We also design a network and an adversary for which FIFO is non-stable for any r ≱ 0.8357, improving the previous known bounds of [2].

Abstract: We study extreme Nash equilibria in the context of a selfish routing game. Specifically, we assume a collection of n users, each employing a mixed strategy, which is a probability distribution over m parallel identical links, to control the routing of its own assigned traffic. In a Nash equilibrium, each user selfishly routes its traffic on those links that minimize its expected latency cost. The social cost of a Nash equilibrium is the expectation, over all random choices of the users, of the maximum, over all links, latency through a link.
We provide substantial evidence for the Fully Mixed Nash Equilibrium Conjecture, which states that the worst Nash equilibrium is the fully mixed Nash equilibrium, where each user chooses each link with positive probability. Specifically, we prove that the Fully Mixed Nash Equilibrium Conjecture is valid for pure Nash equilibria. Furthermore, we show, that under a certain condition, the social cost of any Nash equilibrium is within a factor of 2h(1+ɛ) of that of the fully mixed Nash equilibrium, where h is the factor by which the largest user traffic deviates from the average user traffic.
Considering pure Nash equilibria, we provide a PTAS to approximate the best social cost, we give an upper bound on the worst social cost and we show that it is View the MathML source-hard to approximate the worst social cost within a multiplicative factor better than 2-2/(m+1).

Abstract: We study extreme Nash equilibria in the context of a selfish routing game. Specifically, we assume a collection of n users, each employing a mixed strategy, which is a probability distribution over m parallel identical links, to control the routing of its own assigned traffic. In a Nash equilibrium, each user selfishly routes its traffic on those links that minimize its expected latency cost. The social cost of a Nash equilibrium is the expectation, over all random choices of the users, of the maximum, over all links, latency through a link.We provide substantial evidence for the Fully Mixed Nash Equilibrium Conjecture, which states that the worst Nash equilibrium is the fully mixed Nash equilibrium, where each user chooses each link with positive probability. Specifically, we prove that the Fully Mixed Nash Equilibrium Conjecture is valid for pure Nash equilibria. Furthermore, we show, that under a certain condition, the social cost of any Nash equilibrium is within a factor of 2h(1 + {\aa}) of that of the fully mixed Nash equilibrium, where h is the factor by which the largest user traffic deviates from the average user traffic.Considering pure Nash equilibria, we provide a PTAS to approximate the best social cost, we give an upper bound on the worst social cost and we show that it is N P-hard to approximate the worst social cost within a multiplicative factor better than 2 - 2/(m + 1).

Abstract: We investigate the impact of different mobility rates on the
performance of routing protocols in ad-hoc mobile networks. Based
on our investigation, we design a new protocol that results from
the synthesis of the well known protocols: ZRP and RUNNERS. We have implemented the new protocol as well as
the original two protocols and conducted an extensive, comparative
simulation study of their performance. The new protocol behaves
well both in networks of diverse mobility motion rates, and in
some cases even outperforms the original ones by achieving lower
message delivery delays.

Abstract: We consider non-cooperative unsplittable congestion games where players share resources, and each player's strategy is pure and consists of a subset of the resources on which it applies a fixed weight. Such games represent unsplittable routing flow games and also job allocation games. The congestion of a resource is the sum of the weights of the players that use it and the player's cost function is the sum of the utilities of the resources on its strategy. The social cost is the total weighted sum of the player's costs. The quality of Nash equilibria is determined by the price of anarchy (PoA) which expresses how much worse is the social outcome in the worst equilibrium versus the optimal coordinated solution. In the literature the predominant work has only been on games with polynomial utility costs, where it has been proven that the price of anarchy is bounded by the degree of the polynomial. However, no results exist on general bounds for non-polynomial utility functions.
Here, we consider general versions of these games in which the utility of each resource is an arbitrary non-decreasing function of the congestion. In particular, we consider a large family of superpolynomial utility functions which are asymptotically larger than any polynomial. We demonstrate that for every such function there exist games for which the price of anarchy is unbounded and increasing with the number of players (even if they have infinitesimal weights) while network resources remain fixed. We give tight lower and upper bounds which show this dependence on the number of players. Furthermore we provide an exact characterization of the PoA of all congestion games whose utility costs are bounded above by a polynomial function. Heretofore such results existed only for games with polynomial cost functions.

Abstract: Let M be a single s-t network of parallel links with load dependent latency functions shared by an infinite number of selfish users. This may yield a Nash equilibrium with unbounded Coordination Ratio [E. Koutsoupias, C. Papadimitriou, Worst-case equilibria, in: 16th Annual Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science, STACS, vol. 1563, 1999, pp. 404-413; T. Roughgarden, E. Tardos, How bad is selfish routing? in: 41st IEEE Annual Symposium of Foundations of Computer Science, FOCS, 2000, pp. 93-102]. A Leader can decrease the coordination ratio by assigning flow {\'a}r on M, and then all Followers assign selfishly the (1-{\'a})r remaining flow. This is a Stackelberg Scheduling Instance(M,r,{\'a}),0≤{\'a}≤1. It was shown [T. Roughgarden, Stackelberg scheduling strategies, in: 33rd Annual Symposium on Theory of Computing, STOC, 2001, pp. 104-113] that it is weakly NP-hard to compute the optimal Leader's strategy. For any such network M we efficiently compute the minimum portion @b"M of flow r>0 needed by a Leader to induce M's optimum cost, as well as her optimal strategy. This shows that the optimal Leader's strategy on instances (M,r,@a>=@b"M) is in P. Unfortunately, Stackelberg routing in more general nets can be arbitrarily hard. Roughgarden presented a modification of Braess's Paradox graph, such that no strategy controlling {\'a}r flow can induce ≤1/{\'a} times the optimum cost. However, we show that our main result also applies to any s-t net G. We take care of the Braess's graph explicitly, as a convincing example. Finally, we extend this result to k commodities. A conference version of this paper has appeared in [A. Kaporis, P. Spirakis, The price of optimum in stackelberg games on arbitrary single commodity networks and latency functions, in: 18th annual ACM symposium on Parallelism in Algorithms and Architectures, SPAA, 2006, pp. 19-28]. Some preliminary results have also appeared as technical report in [A.C. Kaporis, E. Politopoulou, P.G. Spirakis, The price of optimum in stackelberg games, in: Electronic Colloquium on Computational Complexity, ECCC, (056), 2005].

Abstract: We study the problem of routing traffic through a congested network. We focus on the simplest case of a network consisting of m parallel links. We assume a collection of n network users; each user employs a mixed strategy, which is a probability distribution over links, to control the shipping of its own assigned traffic. Given a capacity for each link specifying the rate at which the link processes traffic, the objective is to route traffic so that the maximum (over all links) latency is minimized. We consider both uniform and arbitrary link capacities. How much decrease in global performace is necessary due to the absence of some central authority to regulate network traffic and implement an optimal assignment of traffic to links? We investigate this fundamental question in the context of Nash equilibria for such a system, where each network user selfishly routes its traffic only on those links available to it that minimize its expected latency cost, given the network congestion caused by the other users. We use the Coordination Ratio, originally defined by Koutsoupias and Papadimitriou, as a measure of the cost of lack of coordination among the users; roughly speaking, the Coordination Ratio is the ratio of the expectation of the maximum (over all links) latency in the worst possible Nash equilibrium, over the least possible maximum latency had global regulation been available. Our chief instrument is a set of combinatorial Minimum Expected Latency Cost Equations, one per user, that characterize the Nash equilibria of this system. These are linear equations in the minimum expected latency costs, involving the user traffics, the link capacities, and the routing pattern determined by the mixed strategies. In turn, we solve these equations in the case of fully mixed strategies, where each user assigns its traffic with a strictly positive probability to every link, to derive the first existence and uniqueness results for fully mixed Nash equilibria in this setting. Through a thorough analysis and characterization of fully mixed Nash equilibria, we obtain tight upper bounds of no worse than O(ln n/ln ln n) on the Coordination Ratio for (i) the case of uniform capacities and arbitrary traffics and (ii) the case of arbitrary capacities and identical traffics.

Abstract: In this work, we study the combinatorial structure and the
computational complexity of Nash equilibria for a certain game that
models selfish routing over a network consisting of m parallel links. We
assume a collection of n users, each employing a mixed strategy, which
is a probability distribution over links, to control the routing of its own
assigned traffic. In a Nash equilibrium, each user selfishly routes its traffic
on those links that minimize its expected latency cost, given the network
congestion caused by the other users. The social cost of a Nash equilibrium
is the expectation, over all random choices of the users, of the
maximum, over all links, latency through a link.
We embark on a systematic study of several algorithmic problems related
to the computation of Nash equilibria for the selfish routing game we consider.
In a nutshell, these problems relate to deciding the existence of a
Nash equilibrium, constructing a Nash equilibrium with given support
characteristics, constructing the worst Nash equilibrium (the one with
maximum social cost), constructing the best Nash equilibrium (the one
with minimum social cost), or computing the social cost of a (given) Nash
equilibrium. Our work provides a comprehensive collection of efficient algorithms,
hardness results (both as NP-hardness and #P-completeness
results), and structural results for these algorithmic problems. Our results
span and contrast a wide range of assumptions on the syntax of the
Nash equilibria and on the parameters of the system.

Abstract: The peer-to-peer computing paradigm is an intriguing alternative to Google-style search
engines for querying and ranking Web content. In a network with many thousands or
millions of peers the storage and access load requirements per peer are much lighter
than for a centralized Google-like server farm; thus more powerful techniques from information
retrieval, statistical learning, computational linguistics, and ontological reasoning
can be employed on each peer¢s local search engine for boosting the quality
of search results. In addition, peers can dynamically collaborate on advanced and particularly
difficult queries. Moroever, a peer-to-peer setting is ideally suited to capture
local user behavior, like query logs and click streams, and disseminate and aggregate
this information in the network, at the discretion of the corresponding user, in order to
incorporate richer cognitive models.
This paper gives an overview of ongoing work in the EU Integrated Project DELIS
that aims to develop foundations for a peer-to-peer search engine with Google-or-better
scale, functionality, and quality, which will operate in a completely decentralized and
self-organizing manner. The paper presents the architecture of such a system and the
Minerva prototype testbed, and it discusses various core pieces of the approach: efficient
execution of top-k ranking queries, strategies for query routing when a search request
needs to be forwarded to other peers, maintaining a self-organizing semantic overlay
network, and exploiting and coping with user and community behavior.

Abstract: In this paper, we review recent advances in ultrafast optical time-domain technology with emphasis on the use in optical packet switching. In this respect, several key building blocks, including high-rate laser sources applicable to any time-division-multiplexing (TDM) application, optical logic circuits for bitwise processing, and clock-recovery circuits for timing synchronization with both synchronous and asynchronous data traffic, are described in detail. The circuits take advantage of the ultrafast nonlinear transfer function of semiconductor-based devices to operate successfully at rates beyond 10 Gb/s. We also demonstrate two more complex circuits-a header extraction unit and an exchange-bypass switch-operating at 10 Gb/s. These two units are key blocks for any general-purpose packet routing/switching application. Finally, we discuss the system perspective of all these modules and propose their possible incorporation in a packet switch architecture to provide low-level but high-speed functionalities. The goal is to perform as many operations as possible in the optical domain to increase node throughput and to alleviate the network from unwanted and expensive optical-electrical-optical conversions.

Abstract: In this work we add a training phase to an Impairment Aware Routing and Wavelength Assignment (IA-RWA) algorithm so as to improve its performance. The initial IA-RWA algorithm is a multi-parametric algorithm where a vector of physical impairment parameters is assigned to each link, from which the impairment vectors of candidate lightpaths are calculated. The important issue here is how to combine these impairment parameters into a scalar that would reflect the true transmission quality of a path. The training phase of the proposed IA-RWA algorithm is based on an optimization approach, called Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), inspired by animal social behavior. The training phase gives the ability to the algorithm to be aware of the physical impairments even though the optical layer is seen as a black box. Our simulation studies show that the performance of the proposed scheme is close to that of algorithms that have explicit knowledge of the optical layer and the physical impairments.

Abstract: We study computationally hard combinatorial problems arising from the important engineering question of how to maximize the number of connections that can be simultaneously served in a WDM optical network. In such networks, WDM technology can satisfy a set of connections by computing a route and assigning a wavelength to each connection so that no two connections routed through the same fiber are assigned the same wavelength. Each fiber supports a limited number of w wavelengths and in order to fully exploit the parallelism provided by the technology, one should select a set connections of maximum cardinality which can be satisfied using the available wavelengths. This is known as the maximum routing and path coloring problem (maxRPC).
Our main contribution is a general analysis method for a class of iterative algorithms for a more general coloring problem. A lower bound on the benefit of such an algorithm in terms of the optimal benefit and the number of available wavelengths is given by a benefit-revealing linear program. We apply this method to maxRPC in both undirected and bidirected rings to obtain bounds on the approximability of several algorithms. Our results also apply to the problem maxPC where paths instead of connections are given as part of the input. We also study the profit version of maxPC in rings where each path has a profit and the objective is to satisfy a set of paths of maximum total profit.

Abstract: A Nash equilibrium of a routing network represents a stable state of the network where no user finds it beneficial to unilaterally deviate from its routing strategy. In this work, we investigate the structure of such equilibria within the context of a certain game that models selfish routing for a set of n users each shipping its traffic over a network consisting of m parallel links. In particular, we are interested in identifying the worst-case Nash equilibrium – the one that maximizes social cost. Worst-case Nash equilibria were first introduced and studied in the pioneering work of Koutsoupias and Papadimitriou [9].
More specifically, we continue the study of the Conjecture of the Fully Mixed Nash Equilibrium, henceforth abbreviated as FMNE Conjecture, which asserts that the fully mixed Nash equilibrium, when existing, is the worst-case Nash equilibrium. (In the fully mixed Nash equilibrium, the mixed strategy of each user assigns (strictly) positive probability to every link.) We report substantial progress towards identifying the validity, methodologies to establish, and limitations of, the FMNE Conjecture.

Abstract: There exists a great amount of algorithms for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) that have never been tried in practice. This is due to the fact that programming sensor nodes still happens on a very technical level. We remedy the situation by introducing our algorithm library Wiselib, which allows for simple implementations of algorithms. It can adopt to a large variety of hardware and software. This is achieved by employing advanced C++ techniques such as templates and inline functions, which allow to write generic code that is resolved and bound at compile time, resulting in virtually no memory or computation overhead at run time. The Wiselib runs on different host operating systems such as Contiki, iSense OS, and ScatterWeb. Furthermore, it runs on virtual nodes simulated by Shawn. The Wiselib provides an algorithm with data structures that suit the specific properties of the target platform. Algorithm code does not contain any platform-specific specializations, allowing a single implementation to run natively on heterogeneous networks. In this paper, we describe the building blocks of the Wiselib, analyze the overhead, and show how cryptographically secured routing algorithms can be implemented. We also report on results from experiments with real sensor node hardware.