Abstract: Wireless sensor networks are comprised of a vast number of
ultra-small autonomous computing, communication and sensing devices,
with restricted energy and computing capabilities, that co-operate
to accomplish a large sensing task. Such networks can be very useful
in practice, e.g.~in the local monitoring of ambient conditions and
reporting them to a control center. In this paper we propose a
distributed group key establishment protocol that uses mobile agents
(software) and is particularly suitable for energy constrained,
dynamically evolving ad-hoc networks. Our approach totally avoids
the construction and the maintenance of a distributed structure that
reflects the topology of the network. Moreover, it trades-off
complex message exchanges by performing some amount of additional
local computations in order to be applicable at dense and dynamic
sensor networks. The extra computations are simple for the devices
to implement and are evenly distributed across the participants of
the network leading to good energybalance. We evaluate the
performance of our protocol in a simulated environment and compare
our results with existing group key establishment protocols. The
security of the protocol is based on the Diffie-Hellman problem and
we used in our experiments its elliptic curve analog. Our findings
basically indicate the feasibility of implementing our protocol in
real sensor network devices and highlight the advantages and
disadvantages of each approach given the available technology and
the corresponding efficiency (energy, time) criteria.

Abstract: In this paper, we consider the problem of energybalanced data propagation in wireless sensor networks and we generalise previous works by allowing realistic energy assignment. A new modelisation of the process of energy consumption as a random walk along with a new analysis are proposed. Two new algorithms are presented and analysed. The first one is easy to implement and fast to execute. However, it needs a priori assumptions on the process generating data to be propagated. The second algorithm overcomes this need by inferring information from the observation of the process. Furthermore, this algorithm is based on stochastic estimation methods and is adaptive to environmental changes. This represents an important contribution for propagating energybalanced data in wireless sensor netwoks due to their highly dynamic nature.

Abstract: We study the problem of greedy, single path data propaga-
tion in wireless sensor networks, aiming mainly to minimize
the energy dissipation. In particular, we rst mathemat-
ically analyze and experimentally evaluate the energy e-
ciency and latency of three characteristic protocols, each one
selecting the next hop node with respect to a dierent cri-
terion (minimum projection, minimum angle and minimum
distance to the destination). Our analytic and simulation
ndings suggest that any single criterion does not simulta-
neously satisfy both energy eciency and low latency. To-
wards parameterized energy-latency trade-os we provide as
well hybrid combinations of the two criteria (direction and
proximity to the sink). Our hybrid protocols achieve sig-
nicant perfomance gains and allow ne-tuning of desired
performance. Also, they have nice energybalance proper-
ties, and can prolong the network lifetime.

Abstract: We study the problem of energy-balanced data propagation in wireless sensor networks. The energybalance property is crucial for maximizing the time the network is functional, by avoiding early energy depletion of a large portion of sensors. We propose a distributed, adaptive data propagation algorithm that exploits limited, local network density information for achieving energy-balance while at the same time
minimizing energy dissipation.
We investigate both uniform and heterogeneous sensor placement distributions. By a detailed experimental evaluation and comparison with well-known energy-balanced protocols, we show that our density-based protocol improves energy efficiency signicantly while also having better energybalance properties.
Furthermore, we compare the performance of our protocol with a centralized, o-line optimum solution derived by a linear program which maximizes the network lifetime and show that it achieves near-optimal performance for uniform sensor deployments.

Abstract: Random walks in wireless sensor networks can serve as fully
local, very simple strategies for sink motion that reduce energy dissipa-
tion a lot but increase the latency of data collection. To achieve satis-
factory energy-latency trade-offs the sink walks can be made adaptive,
depending on network parameters such as density and/or history of past
visits in each network region; but this increases the memory require-
ments. Towards better balances of memory/performance, we propose two
new random walks: the Random Walk with Inertia and the Explore-and-
Go Random Walk; we also introduce a new metric (Proximity Varia-
tion) that captures the different way each walk gets close to the network
nodes. We implement the new walks and experimentally compare them
to known ones. The simulation findings demonstrate that the new walk˘s
performance (cover time) gets close to the one of the (much stronger)
biased walk, while in some other respects (partial cover time, proximity
variation) they even outperform it. We note that the proposed walks
have been fine-tuned in the light of experimental findings.

Abstract: Wireless sensor networks are comprised of a vast number of ultra-small autonomous computing, communication and sensing devices, with restricted energy and computing capabilities, that co-operate to accomplish a large sensing task. Such networks can be very useful in practice, e.g.~in the local monitoring of ambient conditions and reporting them to a control center. In this paper we propose a new lightweight, distributed group key establishment protocol suitable for such energy constrained networks. Our approach basically trade-offs complex message exchanges by performing some amount of additional local computations. The extra computations are simple for the devices to implement and are evenly distributed across the participants of the network leading to good energybalance. We evaluate the performance our protocol in comparison to existing group key establishment protocols both in simulated and real environments. The intractability of all protocols is based on the Diffie-Hellman problem and we used its elliptic curve analog in our experiments. Our findings basically indicate the feasibility of implementing our protocol in real sensor network devices and highlight the advantages and disadvantages of each approach given the available technology and the corresponding efficiency (energy, time) criteria.

Abstract: Wireless sensor networks are comprised of a vast number of ultra-small autonomous computing, communication and sensing devices, with restricted energy and computing capabilities, that co-operate to accomplish a large sensing task. Such networks can be very useful in practice, e.g.~in the local monitoring of ambient conditions and reporting them to a control center. In this paper we propose a new lightweight, distributed group key establishment protocol suitable for such energy constrained networks. Our approach basically trade-offs complex message exchanges by performing some amount of additional local computations. The extra computations are simple for the devices to implement and are evenly distributed across the participants of the network leading to good energybalance. We evaluate the performance our protocol in comparison to existing group key establishment protocols both in simulated and real environments. The intractability of all protocols is based on the Diffie-Hellman problem and we used its elliptic curve analog in our experiments. Our findings basically indicate the feasibility of implementing our protocol in real sensor network devices and highlight the advantages and disadvantages of each approach given the available technology and the corresponding efficiency (energy, time) criteria.

Abstract: Through recent technology advances in the eld of wireless energy transmission, Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks
(WRSN) have emerged. In this new paradigm for
WSNs a mobile entity called Mobile Charger (MC) traverses
the network and replenishes the dissipated energy of sensors.
In this work we rst provide a formal denition of the charging
dispatch decision problem and prove its computational
hardness. We then investigate how to optimize the tradeo
s of several critical aspects of the charging process such
as a) the trajectory of the charger, b) the dierent charging
policies and c) the impact of the ratio of the energy
the MC may deliver to the sensors over the total available
energy in the network. In the light of these optimizations,
we then study the impact of the charging process to the
network lifetime for three characteristic underlying routing
protocols; a greedy protocol, a clustering protocol and an
energy balancing protocol. Finally, we propose a Mobile
Charging Protocol that locally adapts the circular trajectory
of the MC to the energy dissipation rate of each sub-region
of the network. We compare this protocol against several
MC trajectories for all three routing families by a detailed
experimental evaluation. The derived ndings demonstrate
signicant performance gains, both with respect to the no
charger case as well as the dierent charging alternatives; in
particular, the performance improvements include the network
lifetime, as well as connectivity, coverage and energybalance properties.

Abstract: We study the problem of energy-balanced data propagation
in wireless sensor networks. The energybalance property
guarantees that the average per sensor energy dissipation
is the same for all sensors in the network, during
the entire execution of the data propagation protocol. This
property is important since it prolongs the network˘s lifetime
by avoiding early energy depletion of sensors.
We propose a new algorithm that in each step decides
whether to propagate data one-hop towards the final destination
(the sink), or to send data directly to the sink. This
randomized choice balances the (cheap) one-hop transimssions
with the direct transimissions to the sink, which are
more expensive but “bypass” the sensors lying close to the
sink. Note that, in most protocols, these close to the sink
sensors tend to be overused and die out early.
By a detailed analysis we precisely estimate the probabilities
for each propagation choice in order to guarantee
energybalance. The needed estimation can easily be performed
by current sensors using simple to obtain information.
Under some assumptions, we also derive a closed form
for these probabilities.
The fact (shown by our analysis) that direct (expensive)
transmissions to the sink are needed only rarely, shows that
our protocol, besides energy-balanced, is also energy efficient.

Abstract: We study the problem of energy-balanced data propagation in wireless sensor networks. The energybalance property guarantees that the average per sensor energy dissipation is the same for all sensors in the network, during the entire execution of the data propagation protocol. This property is important since it prolongs the network˘:s lifetime by avoiding early energy depletion of sensors.
We propose a new algorithm that in each step decides whether to propagate data one-hop towards the final destination (the sink), or to send data directly to the sink. This randomized choice balances the (cheap) one-hop transimssions with the direct transimissions to the sink, which are more expensive but “bypass” the sensors lying close to the sink. Note that, in most protocols, these close to the sink sensors tend to be overused and die out early.
By a detailed analysis we precisely estimate the probabilities for each propagation choice in order to guarantee energybalance. The needed estimation can easily be performed by current sensors using simple to obtain information. Under some assumptions, we also derive a closed form for these probabilities.
The fact (shown by our analysis) that direct (expensive) transmissions to the sink are needed only rarely, shows that our protocol, besides energy-balanced, is also energy efficient.

Abstract: The energybalance property (i.e., all nodes having the same energy throughout the network evolution) contributes significantly (along with energy efficiency) to the maximization of the network lifespan and network connectivity. The problem of achieving energybalanced propagation is well studied in static networks, as it has attracted a lot of research attention.
Recent technological advances have enabled sensor devices to be attached to mobile entities of our every day life (e.g. smart-phones, cars, PDAs etc), thus introducing the formation of highly mobile sensor networks.
Inspired by the aforementioned applications, this work is (to the best of our knowledge) the first studying the energybalance property in wireless networks where the nodes are highly and dynamically mobile. In particular, in this paper we propose a new diverse mobility model which is easily parameterized and we also present a new protocol which tries to adaptively exploit the inherent node mobility in order to achieve energybalance in the network in an efficient way.

Abstract: We present key aspects (hardware, software, topology, networking) of SenseWall, an experimental sensor network test-bed we have created for the implementation and engineering of distributed sensor network algorithms. We then describe how SenseWall has been in particular used to implement two recent state of the art algorithms for energybalanced sensor data propagation. We elaborate on the issues and challenges created by the restrictions and particularities of the experimental test-bed and how we dealt with them. We also carry out a detailed performance evaluation comparing the energybalance protocols to two baseline protocols that include only either single hop or direct data transmissions.

Abstract: Recent rapid developments in micro-electro-mechanical systems
(MEMS), wireless communications and digital electronics have already
led to the development of tiny, low-power, low-cost sensor devices.
Such devices integrate sensing, limited data processing and restricted
communication capabilities.
Each sensor device individually might have small utility, however the
effective distributed co-ordination of large numbers of such devices can
lead to the efficient accomplishment of large sensing tasks. Large numbers
of sensors can be deployed in areas of interest (such as inaccessible
terrains or disaster places) and use self-organization and collaborative
methods to form an ad-hoc network.
We note however that the efficient and robust realization of such large,
highly-dynamic, complex, non-conventional networking environments is
a challenging technological and algorithmic task, because of the unique
characteristics and severe limitations of these devices.
This talk will present and discuss several important aspects of the
design, deployment and operation of sensor networks. In particular, we
provide a brief description of the technical specifications of state-of-theart
sensor, a discussion of possible models used to abstract such networks,
a discussion of some key algorithmic design techniques (like randomization,
adaptation and hybrid schemes), a presentation of representative
protocols for sensor networks, for important problems including data
propagation, collision avoidance and energybalance and an evaluation
of crucial performance properties (correctness, efficiency, fault-tolerance)
of these protocols, both with analytic and simulation means.

Abstract: We investigate the problem of how to achieve energybalanced data propagation in distributed wireless sensor networks. The energybalance property guarantees that the average per sensor energy dissipation is the same for all sensors in the network, throughout the execution of the data propagation protocol. This property is crucial for prolonging the network lifetime, by avoiding early energy depletion of sensors.
We survey representative solutions from the state of the art. We first present a basic algorithm that in each step probabilistically decides whether to propagate data one-hop towards the final destination (the sink), or to send it directly to the sink. This randomized choice trades-off the (cheap, but slow) one-hop transmissions with the direct transmissions to the sink, which are more expensive but bypass the bottleneck region around the sink and propagate data fast. By a detailed analysis using properties of stochastic processes and recurrence relations we precisely estimate (even in closed form) the probability for each propagation option necessary for energybalance.
The fact (shown by our analysis) that direct (expensive) transmissions to the sink are needed only rarely, shows that our protocol, besides energybalanced, is also energy efficient. We then enhance this basic result by surveying some recent findings including a generalized algorithm and demonstrating the optimality of this two-way probabilistic data propagation, as well as providing formal proofs of the energy optimality of the energybalance property.

Abstract: This paper studies the data gathering problem in wireless networks, where data generated at the nodes has to be collected at a single sink. We investigate the relationship between routing optimality and fair resource management. In particular, we prove that for energybalanced data propagation, Pareto optimal routing and flow maximization are equivalent, and also prove that flow maximization is equivalent to maximizing the network lifetime. We algebraically characterize the network structures in which energybalanced data flows are maximal. Moreover, we algebraically characterize communication links which are not used by an optimal flow. This leads to the characterization of minimal network structures supporting the maximal flows.
We note that energybalance, although implying global optimality, is a local property that can be computed efficiently and in a distributed manner. We suggest online distributed algorithms for energybalance in different optimal network structures and numerically show their stability in particular setting. We remark that although the results obtained in this paper have a direct consequence in energy saving for wireless networks they do not limit themselves to this type of networks neither to energy as a resource. As a matter of fact, the results are much more general and can be used for any type of network and different type of resources.

Abstract: This paper studies the data gathering problem in wireless networks, where data generated at the nodes has to be collected at a single sink. We investigate the relationship between routing optimality and fair resource management. In particular, we prove that for energy-balanced data propagation, Pareto optimal routing and flow maximization are equivalent, and also prove that flow maximization is equivalent to maximizing the network lifetime. We algebraically characterize the network structures in which energy-balanced data flows are maximal. Moreover, we algebraically characterize communication links which are not used by an optimal flow. This leads to the characterization of minimal network structures supporting the maximal flows.
We note that energy-balance, although implying global optimality, is a local property that can be computed efficiently and in a distributed manner. We suggest online distributed algorithms for energy-balance in different optimal network structures and numerically show their stability in particular setting. We remark that although the results obtained in this paper have a direct consequence in energy saving for wireless networks they do not limit themselves to this type of networks neither to energy as a resource. As a matter of fact, the results are much more general and can be used for any type of network and different types of resources.

Abstract: We consider the important problem of energybalanced data propagation in wireless sensor networks and we extend and generalize
previous works by allowing adaptive energy assignment. We consider the data gathering problem where data are generated by the sensors and
must be routed toward a unique sink. Sensors route data by either sending the data directly to the sink or in a multi-hop fashion by delivering
the data to a neighbouring sensor. Direct and neighbouring transmissions require different levels of energy consumption. Basically, the protocols balance the energy consumption among the sensors by computing the adequate ratios of direct and neighbouring transmissions. An abstract model of energy dissipation as a random walk is proposed, along with rigorous performance analysis techniques. Two efficient distributed algorithms are presented and analysed, by both rigorous means and simulation.
The first one is easy to implement and fast to execute. The protocol assumes that sensors know a-priori the rate of data they generate.
The sink collects and processes all these information in order to compute the relevant value of the protocol parameter. This value is transmitted
to the sensors which individually compute their optimal ratios of direct and neighbouring transmissions. The second protocol avoids the necessary a-priori knowledge of the data rate generated by sensors by inferring the relevant information from the observation of the data paths.
Furthermore, this algorithm is based on stochastic estimation methods and is adaptive to environmental changes.