research unit 1
 

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Vlachos, Kyriakos    

Firstname:Kyriakos 
Surname:Vlachos 
Email: 
Institute: 
Homepage: 
Is RU1 member:YES 

60 publications (0 read)

84 Keywords relate to this author

All-optical packet switching
All-optical signal processing
Almost all-optical nodes
Broadband networks
Burst mode
Burst traffic
Burst-assembly
Burst-packet traffic
Clock recovery
Comb filter - linear cavity - multi-wavelength source - polarization maintaining fibre - semiconductor optical amplifier
Comb generation
Competitive strategy. Journal: info
Congestion avoidance
Dynamic optical networks
EU networks of excellence
Embedded networking systems
Exchange-bypass switch
Exchange/bypass (E/B) switch
Fabry–
Fabry-Perot filter
Fiber lasers
Gain modulation
Hybrid optical switching
Intensity modulation
Interferometric gates
Interferometric switches
Least means quarefi
Linear cavity lasers
Link utilization profile
Lossless communication
Lter
Lyot filter
Mach- Zehnder interferometers.
Multi-wavelength source
Network management
Network processor
Nonlinear transfer function
One-waysignaling
Op- ticalburstswitching (OBS)
Optical Burst Switching
Optical feedback
Optical networking
Optical networks
Optical packet switching
Optical packet switving
Optical packet/burst switching
Optical regeneration
Optical signal processing
Optical switch architecture
Optical switching
Optical time-division multiplexing (OTDM)
Optical transmitters
Optical transparent networks
Overspill routing
Packet scheduling
Packet switching
Pareto
Path selection
Photonic switching systems
Polarization-maintaining ring laser
P{\'e}rot resonators
Quality of service differentiation
Ring-cavity lasers
Scheduling switch architecture
Self-organization
Semiconductor Optical Amplifier-SOA
Semiconductor optical amplifier
Semiconductor optical amplifier (
Semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA)
Semiconductor optical amplifiers
Semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs)
Service differentiation
Service transparency
Special-purpose processor
Switching experiment
Synchronization
TAVE
Timed reservations.
Transport control protocol
Ultrafast Nonlinear Interferometer-UNI
Ultrafast nonlinear interferometer
Ultrafast nonlinear interferometer.
Wavelength conversion
Wavelength converters




Publications as Author



2014

[RACTI-RU1-2014-39] Ramantas, Kostas, Vlachos, Kyriakos, N. Bikos, Anastasios, Ellinas, Georgios and Hadjiantonis, Antonis, A New Unified PON-RAN Access Architecture for 4G LTE Networks, in: Optical Communications and Networking, pages 1-10, 2014.
 
[RACTI-RU1-2014-38] Vlachos, Kyriakos, Vasileiadis, T, Drakopoulos, V., Markos, C., Kakarantzas, G. and Yannopoulos, S.N., Development of hybrid solid and hollow core photonic crystal fiber with soft glass deposition for infrared light manipulation, in: ICTON 2014, 2014.
 
[RACTI-RU1-2014-37] Monoyios, Demetris, Hadjiantonis, Antonis, Vlachos, Kyriakos and Ellinas, Georgios, Efficient Inter-ONU Communication in Ring-based WDM-PONs, in: ICTON 2014, 2014.
 

2013

[RACTI-RU1-2013-18] Ramantas, Kostas, Vlachos, Kyriakos, Ellinas, Georgios and Hadjiantonis, Antonis, A Converged Optical Wireless Architecture for Mobile Backhaul Networks, ONDM 2013, Telecom Bretagne, Brest, France, 2013.
 

2009

[RACTI-RU1-2009-117] Kabaciński, Wojciech, Chen, Jiajia, Danilewicz, Grzegorz, Kleban, Janusz, Spiropoulou, Maria, Tomkos, Ioannis, Varvarigos, Emmanouel, Vlachos, Kyriakos, Wêclewski, Slawomir, Wosinska, Lena and Yiannopoulos, K., Novel Switch Architectures, in: COST Action, 2009.
 
[RACTI-RU1-2009-96] Akar, Nail, Karasan, Ezhan, Vlachos, Kyriakos, Varvarigos, Emmanouel, Careglio, Davide, Klinkowskif, Miroslaw and Sole-Pareta, Josep, A survey of quality of service differentiation mechanisms for optical burst switching networks, Elsevier, 2009.
 
[RACTI-RU1-2009-78] Yixuan, Qin, Pointurier, Yvan, Escalona, Eduard, Azodolmolky, Siamak, Angelou, Marianna, Tomkos, Ioannis, Ramantas, Kostas, Vlachos, Kyriakos, Nejabati, Reza and Simeonidou, Dimitra, Hardware Accelerated Impairment Aware Control Plane, in: OFC 2010, 2009.
 
[RACTI-RU1-2009-77] Karinou, Fotini, Roudas, I., Vlachos, Kyriakos, Petrou, C. S., Vgenis, . and Hemenway, B. Roe, Wavelength-space permutation switch with coherent PDM QPSK transmission for supercomputer optical interconnects, in: OFC 2010, 2009.
 
[RACTI-RU1-2009-76] Markos, C., Vlachos, Kyriakos and Kakarantzas, G., Fibre-optic interferometric pressure sensor based on droplet-shaped PDMS elastomer, in: ICO-Photonics conference, pages 5-6, 2009.
 
[RACTI-RU1-2009-75] Ramantas, Kostas, Vargas, Tito Raul, Guerri, Juan Carlos and Vlachos, Kyriakos, A preemptive scheduling scheme for flexible QoS provisioning in OBS networks, in: 6th International Conference on Broadband Communications, Networks and Systems(IEEE BROADNETS 2009), pages 1-8, Madrid, Spain, 2009.
 
[RACTI-RU1-2009-74] Akar, Nail, Karasan, Ezhan, Vlachos, Kyriakos, Varvarigos, Emmanouel, Careglio, Davide, Klinkowskif, Miroslaw and Sole-Pareta, Josep, A survey of quality of service differentiation mechanisms for optical burst switching networks, in: Elsevier: Journal of Optical Switching and Networks, 2009.
 
[RACTI-RU1-2009-73] Ramantas, Kostas and Vlachos, Kyriakos, A combined TCP aware scheduling and assembly scheme for OBS networks, in: Workshop on Optical Burst/Packet Switching (WOBS 2009), pages 1-6, Madrid, Spain, 2009.
 
[RACTI-RU1-2009-72] de Dios, Oscar Gonzalez, Guidotti, Anna Maria, Rafaelli, Carla, Ramantas, Kostas and Vlachos, Kyriakos, On transmission control protocol synchronization in optical burst switching, in: Journal of Photonic Network Communication, volume 18, number 3, pages 323-333, 2009.
 
[RACTI-RU1-2009-69] Teixera, A., Costa, L, Franzi, G, Azodolmolky, Siamak, Tomkos, Ioannis, Vlachos, Kyriakos, Zsigmond, S, Cinkler, T, Tosi-Beleffi, G., Gravey, P, Lazaro, J.A, Vazquez, Carmen, Montalvo, J. and Rouzic, E.L., An Integrated View on Dynamic Monitoring and Compensation for Optical Networks: From Management to Physical Layer, in: Springer: Journal on Photonic Network Communications, volume 18, number 2, pages 191-210, 2009.
 
[RACTI-RU1-2009-67] Karinou, Fotini, Vlachos, Kyriakos and Hemenway, B. Roe, A Broadband ONU Design Using A Semiconductor Optical Amplifier-Based Optical Loop Mirror, in: Conference of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers (OFC/NFOEC 2009), OFC/NFOEC 2009, San Diego, 2009.
 
[RACTI-RU1-2009-65] Vlachos, Kyriakos and Monoyios, Demetris, A Virtual One-Way Signaling Protocol With Aggressive Resource Reservation for Improving Burst Transmission Delay, in: Journal of Lightwave Technology, volume 27, number 14, pages 2869-2875, 2009.
 
[RACTI-RU1-2009-64] Vlachos, Kyriakos and Siokis, Apostolos, A Service-Transparent and Self-Organized Optical Network Architecture, in: IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC 2009), Dresden, Germany, 2009.
 
[RACTI-RU1-2009-63] Monoyios, Demetris, Vlachos, Kyriakos, Tomkos, Ioannis and Angelou, Marianna, On the use of Multi-Objective Optimization Algorithms for solving the Impairment Aware- RWA problem, in: IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC 2009), Dresden, Germany, 2009.
 
[RACTI-RU1-2009-62] Azodolmolky, Siamak, Klonidis, Dimitris, Tomkos, Ioannis, Ye, Yabin, Saradhi, Chava Vijaya, Salvadori, Eliot, Gunkel, Matthias, Manousakis, Kostas, Vlachos, Kyriakos, Varvarigos, Emmanouel, Nejabati, Reza, Simeonidou, Dimitra, Eiselt, Michael, Comellas, Jaume, Sole-Pareta, Josep, Simonneau, Christian, Bayart, Dominique, Staessens, Dimitri, Colle, Didier and Pickavet, Mario, A Dynamic Impairment-Aware Networking Solution for Transparent Mesh Optical Networks, in: IEEE Communications Magazine, volume 47, number 5, pages 38-47, 2009.
 
[RACTI-RU1-2009-61] Vlachos, Kyriakos, Rafaelli, Carla, Aleksic, Slavisa, Andriolli, Nicola, Apostolopoulos, Dimitrios, Avramopoulos, Hercules, Erasme, Didier, Klonidis, Dimitris, Petersen, Martin Nordal, Scaffardi, Mirco, Schulze, Karsten, Spiropoulou, Maria, Sygletos, Stelios, Tomkos, Ioannis, Vazquez, Carmen, Zouraraki, Olga and Neri, Fabio, Photonics in switching: enabling echnologies and subsystem design, in: Journal of Optical Networking, volume 8, number 5, pages 404-428, 2009.
 

2008

[RACTI-RU1-2008-72] Teimoori, Hassan, Apostolopoulos, Dimitrios, Vlachos, Kyriakos, Ware, Cedric, Petrantonakis, D., Stampoulidis, L., Avramopoulos, Hercules and Erasme, Didier, Optical logic gate aided packet switching in transparent optical networks, in: IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave technology, volume 26, number 13-16, pages 2848-2856, ISSN 0733-8724, 2008.
 
[RACTI-RU1-2008-71] Vlachos, Kyriakos and Ramantas, Kostas, A non-competing hybrid optical burst switch architecture for QoS differentiation, in: Optical Switching and Networking, volume 5, number 4, pages 177-187, 2008. [DOI]
 
[RACTI-RU1-2008-53] Yiannopoulos, K., Varvarigos, Emmanouel and Vlachos, Kyriakos, Timing Jitter Performance of Finite-Impulse-Response Interferometers for High-Rate Áll-Optical Clock Recovery, CSNDSP 2008, Graz, Austria, 2008.
 
[RACTI-RU1-2008-24] Vlachos, Kyriakos, Optical Burst Switching: Current trends and Future Research Issues, in: Encyclopedia of Internet Techonlogues and Applications, pages 375-382, 2008.
 
[RACTI-RU1-2008-23] Ramantas, Kostas, Vlachos, Kyriakos, de Dios, Oscar Gonzalez, Aracil, Javier and Rafaelli, Carla, Timer-based burst assembly algorithms and their effect in TCP Congestion window, in: OSA: Journal of Optical Networking, volume 7, number 5, pages 487-495, 2008.
 
[RACTI-RU1-2008-22] Rafaelli, Carla and Vlachos, Kyriakos, Photonics in Switching: Architectures, Systems and enabling Technologies, in: Elsevier: Journal of Computer Networks, volume 52, number 10, pages 1873-1890, 2008. [DOI]
 

2007

[RACTI-RU1-2007-114] Aracil, Javier, Akar, Nail, Bjornstad, S., Casoni, M., Christodoulopoulos, Konstantinos, Careglio, Davide, Fdez-Palacios, J., Gauger, C., de Dios, Oscar Gonzalez, Karasan, Ezhan, Klinkowskif, Miroslaw, Morato, D., Nejabati, Reza, Overby, H., Rafaelli, Carla, Simeonidou, Dimitra, Stolc, N., Tosi-Beleffi, G. and Vlachos, Kyriakos, Research in Optical Burst Switching with in the E-Photon/ONe Network of Excellence, in: Elsevier: Journal of Optical Switching and Networks, volume 4, number 1, pages 1-19, 2007.
 
[RACTI-RU1-2007-113] Vlachos, Kyriakos, Orphanoudakis, T, Papaeftathiou, Y, Nikolaou, N, Pnevmatikatos, D, Konstantoulakis, G and Sanchez-P, J.A, Design and performance evaluation of a programmable Packet Processing Engine (PPE) suitable for high-speed network processors units, in: Microprocessors and Microsystems, volume 31, number 3, pages 188-199, 2007.
 
[RACTI-RU1-2007-110] Christodoulopoulos, Konstantinos, Varvarigos, Emmanouel and Vlachos, Kyriakos, A new Burst Assembly Scheme based on the Average Packet Delay and its Performance for TCP Traffic, in: Elsevier: Journal of Optical Switching and Networks, volume 4, number 3-4, pages 200-212, 2007.
 
[RACTI-RU1-2007-102] Vlachos, Kyriakos, Breusegem, E., Christodoulopoulos, Konstantinos, Colle, Didier, Ramantas, Kostas and Demeester, Piet, Constrained and Unconstrained Overspill Routing in Optical Networks: A Detailed Performance Evaluation, in: Springer: Journal on Photonic Network Communications, volume 13, number 3, pages 227-240, 2007.
 
[RACTI-RU1-2007-100] Yiannopoulos, K., Varvarigos, Emmanouel and Vlachos, Kyriakos, Multiple-Input Buffer and Shared Buffer Architectures for Asynchronous Optical Burst Switching Networks, in: Journal of Lightwave Technology, volume 25, number 6, pages 1379-1389, 2007.
 
[RACTI-RU1-2007-94] Van Caenegem, R, Colle, Didier, Pickavet, Mario, Demeester, Piet, Christodoulopoulos, Konstantinos, Vlachos, Kyriakos, Varvarigos, Emmanouel, Stampoulidis, L., Roccato, D and Vilar, R, The design of an all-optical packet-switching network, in: IEEE Communications Magazine, volume 45, number 11, pages 52-61, 2007.
 
[RACTI-RU1-2007-91] Yiannopoulos, K., Varvarigos, Emmanouel and Vlachos, Kyriakos, Multiple-Input Buffer and Shared Buffer Architectures for Asynchronous Optical Burst Switching Networks, in: IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC 2007), pages 1379-1389, 2007.
 
[RACTI-RU1-2007-79] Zouraraki, Olga, Petrantonakis, D., Yiannopoulos, K., Meleiro, R., Sadeghioon, L. M., Poustie, A., Maxwell, G., Varvarigos, Emmanouel, Vlachos, Kyriakos, Monteiro, P., Simeonidou, Dimitra and Avramopoulos, Hercules, Optically-Addressable Packet Timeslot Interchanger Using a Quadruple Switch Array, in: Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2007), pages 1-3, Anaheim, USA, 2007.
 

2006

[RACTI-RU1-2006-96] Manousakis, Kostas, Sourlas, Vasileios, Stampoulidis, L., Vlachos, Kyriakos and Varvarigos, Emmanouel, A traffic monitoring mechanism: enhancing SNMP to record future capacity utilization, in: Computer Communications, 2006.
 
[RACTI-RU1-2006-95] Varvarigos, Emmanouel, Vlachos, Kyriakos, Theophilopoulos, G, Simeonidou, Dimitra, Nejabati, Reza, Avramopoulos, Hercules and Neri, Fabio, A Packet and Burst All-Optical Non-Blocking Switching System, in: Communications Magazine, 2006.
 
[RACTI-RU1-2006-86] Manousakis, Kostas, Sourlas, Vasileios, Stampoulidis, L., Vlachos, Kyriakos and Varvarigos, Emmanouel, A link capacity monitoring mechanism, suitable for traffic engineering and QoS routing by enhancing SNMP to record bandwidth reservations, in: Journal of Network and Systems Management, volume 14, number 4, pages 583-597, 2006.
 
[RACTI-RU1-2006-83] Christodoulopoulos, Konstantinos, Vlachos, Kyriakos, Varvarigos, Emmanouel, Stampoulidis, L. and Kehayas, E., EBRP: An Efficient burst reservation protocol for QoS provision in optical burst switching networks, in: OSA: Journal of Optical Networking, volume 5, pages 147-158, 2006.
 
[RACTI-RU1-2006-64] Vlachos, Kyriakos, Research in optical burst switching within the e-Photon/ONe network of excellence $ The e-Photon/ONe Network of Excellence, in: Optical Switching and Networking, volume 4, pages 1-19, 2006.
 
[RACTI-RU1-2006-63] Polykalas, S. and Vlachos, Kyriakos, Broadband penetration versus Broadband competition: Evidence and Analysis from the EU market, in: Emerald Insight, volume 8, number 6, pages 1-15, ISSN 1463-6697, 2006.
 
[RACTI-RU1-2006-62] Christodoulopoulos, Konstantinos, Breusegem, E., Vlachos, Kyriakos, Pickavet, Mario, Varvarigos, Emmanouel and Colle, Didier, Performance Evaluation of Overspill Routing in Optical Networks, in: IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC 2006), pages 2583-2543, Instanbul, Turkey, 2006.
 
[RACTI-RU1-2006-61] Yiannopoulos, K., Vlachos, Kyriakos and Varvarigos, Emmanouel, An Architecture for Almost All-Optical Nodes Based on Wavelength Converters, in: 5th International Symposium Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP 2006), pages 391-395, Patras Greece, 2006.
 
[RACTI-RU1-2006-60] Christodoulopoulos, Konstantinos, Vlachos, Kyriakos, Yiannopoulos, K. and Varvarigos, Emmanouel, Relaxing Delayed Reservations: An approach for QoS provision and service differentiation in Optical Burst Switching networks, in: IEEE 3rd International Conference on Broadband Communications , Networks and Systems (BROADNETS 2006), pages 1-9, San Jose, 2006.
 
[RACTI-RU1-2006-56] Aracil, Javier, Hernandez, J. A., Vlachos, Kyriakos and Varvarigos, Emmanouel, Jitter-based analysis and discussion of burst assembly algorithms, in: 4th International Workshop on Optical Burst Switching (WOBS 2006), pages 1-3, 2006. [DOI]
 
[RACTI-RU1-2006-49] Manousakis, Kostas, Sourlas, Vasileios, Christodoulopoulos, Konstantinos, Varvarigos, Emmanouel and Vlachos, Kyriakos, A Bandwidth Monitoring Mechanism Enhancing SNMP to Record Timed Resource Reservations, in: Journal of Network and Systems Management, volume 14, number 4, pages 583-597, 2006.
 

2005

[RACTI-RU1-2005-64] Hatziefremidis, A., Theophilopoulos, G and Vlachos, Kyriakos, 50-GHz, ultrastable, polarization-maintaining semiconductor fiber ring laser, in: Optical Engineering, volume 44, number 6, pages 1-3, 2005. [DOI]
 
[RACTI-RU1-2005-63] Houbavlis, T., Zoiros, K.E., Kalyvas, M, Theophilopoulos, G, Bintjas, C, Yiannopoulos, K., Pleros, N., Vlachos, Kyriakos, Avramopoulos, Hercules, Schares, L., Occhi, L., Guekos, G., Taylor, J. R., Hansmann, S. and Miller, W., All-Optical Signal Processing and Applications Within the Esprit Project DO_ALL, in: Journal of Lightwave Technology, volume 23, number 2, pages 781-801, 2005. [DOI]
 
[RACTI-RU1-2005-29] Stampoulidis, L., Kehayas, E., Vyrsokinos, K, Christodoulopoulos, Konstantinos, Tsiokos, D, Bakopoulos, , Kanellos, T, Vlachos, Kyriakos, Varvarigos, Emmanouel and Avramopoulos, Hercules, ARTEMIS:A 40 Gb/s All-Optical Self-Routing Node and Network Architecture employing Asynchronous Bit and Packet-Level Optical Signal Processing, in: IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM 2005), pages 2035-2040, St Louis USA, 2005.
 
[RACTI-RU1-2005-28] Theophilopoulos, G, Kalyvas, M, Yiannopoulos, K., Vlachos, Kyriakos, Varvarigos, Emmanouel and Avramopoulos, Hercules, An Alternative Implentation Perspective for the Scheduling Switch Architecture, in: Journal of Lightwave Technology, volume 23, number 2, pages 732-739, 2005. [DOI]
 
[RACTI-RU1-2005-27] Kattirtzis, C, Varvarigos, Emmanouel, Vlachos, Kyriakos, Stathakopoulos, G and Paraskevas, M., Traffic profiling in the Greek School Network, in: 14th IEEE Workshop on Local and Metropolitan Area Networks, pages 321-325, 2005.
 
[RACTI-RU1-2005-25] Vyrsokinos, K, Kehayas, E., Stampoulidis, L., Avramopoulos, Hercules, Christodoulopoulos, Konstantinos, Vlachos, Kyriakos and Varvarigos, Emmanouel, ARTEMIS: A New Architecture for All-Optical Asychronous Self -Routing Network with Efficient Contention Protection and QoS Differentiation, IEEE proceedings of 31st European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) SECC, 2005.
 

2004

[RACTI-RU1-2004-53] Pleros, N., Bintjas, C, Kanellos, T, Vlachos, Kyriakos, Avramopoulos, Hercules and Guekos, G., Recipe for Intensity Modulation Reduction in SOA-Based Interferometric Switches, in: Journal of Lightwave Technology, volume 22, number 12, pages 2834-2841, 2004. [DOI]
 
[RACTI-RU1-2004-52] Pleros, N., Houbavlis, T., Theophilopoulos, G, Vlachos, Kyriakos, Bintjas, C and Avramopoulos, Hercules, SOA-Based Multi-Wavelength Laser Sources, in: Fiber and Integrated Optics, volume 23, number 4, pages 263-274, 2004.
 
[RACTI-RU1-2004-33] Vlachos, Kyriakos, Seklou, K and Varvarigos, Emmanouel, Performance Evaluation of an Optical Packet Scheduling Switch, in: IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM 2004), pages 1857-1861, GLOBECOM, Dallas, 2004.
 
[RACTI-RU1-2004-30] Vlachos, Kyriakos, Varvarigos, Emmanouel and Bintjas, C, Performance Evaluation of an optically interconnected ? Scheduling? Switch network for Paretto traffic, in: Journal of Optical Networking, volume 3, number 11, pages 760-768, 2004. [DOI]
 

2003

[RACTI-RU1-2003-48] Yiannopoulos, K., Vyrsokinos, K, Kehayas, E., Pleros, N., Vlachos, Kyriakos, Avramopoulos, Hercules and Guekos, G., Rate Multiplication by Double-Passing Fabry–Pérot Filtering, in: Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE, volume 15, number 9, pages 1294-1296, ISSN 1041, 2003. [DOI]
 
[RACTI-RU1-2003-47] Pleros, N., Vyrsokinos, K, Bintjas, C, Yiannopoulos, K., Vlachos, Kyriakos, Avramopoulos, Hercules and Guekos, G., All-optical clock recovery from short, asynchronous data packets at 10 Gb/s, in: Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE, volume 15, number 9, pages 1-4, 2003.
 
[RACTI-RU1-2003-44] Bintjas, C, Vlachos, Kyriakos, Pleros, N. and Avramopoulos, Hercules, Ultrafast nonlinear interferometer (UNI)-based digital optical circuits and their use in packet switching, in: Lightwave Technology, volume 21, number 11, pages 2629-2637, ISSN 0733-8724, 2003. [DOI]
 
[RACTI-RU1-2003-43] Vlachos, Kyriakos, Pleros, N., Bintjas, C, Theophilopoulos, G and Avramopoulos, Hercules, Ultrafast time domain technology and its application in all-optical signal processing, in: Lightwave Technology, volume 21, number 9, pages 1857-1868, ISSN 0733-8724, 2003. [DOI]
 
[RACTI-RU1-2003-41] Vlachos, Kyriakos, Koonen, Ton, Theophilopoulos, G and Avramopoulos, Hercules, 23 Wavelength with 100 GHz spacing comb generator source, in: Optical and Quantum Electronics, volume 35, number 9, pages 865-872, ISSN 0306-8919 (Print) 1572-817X (Onl, 2003. [DOI]